A network interface card nic uses a cable medium such

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A network interface card (NIC) uses a cable medium (such as twisted pair or fiber optic cables). A wireless network adapter transmits radio waves. Hub A hub provides a central connecting point for multiple media segments on the same subnet. When a hub receives a signal, it is sent out to all the ports on the hub. Hubs operate in half-duplex mode because the path between devices is shared, meaning that devices can only send when no other devices are sending data. Hubs are a legacy network device and are rarely used because of their lack of features and poor performance. Switch A switch provides a central connection for multiple media segments on the same subnet. A switch receives a signal on one port and forwards that signal only to the port where the destination device is connected. Switches learn where a device is connected by copying the MAC address of the source device and placing it into the MAC address table. The port number which the frame entered is also recorded in the table and associated with the source MAC address. If the switch doesn't yet know which port a destination device is connected to, it will send the frame in question to all ports, much like a hub does. Switches use the MAC address to send frames to the destination device. Switches can operate in full-duplex mode, where a device uses a different channel for sending and receiving and where the transmission paths are dedicated to only the communicating devices. A switch should be used instead of a hub in all situations. Many switches allow you to configure Quality of Service (QoS) settings, which prioritize certain types of network traffic over others. For example, if your network includes Voice over IP (VoIP) telephones, you could increase the priority of VoIP traffic on the switch to increase call quality. Router A router connects two network segments that have a different subnet address. A router has multiple network connections, with each connection being on a different subnet. Routers use the IP address within a packet to move packets between networks. Routers maintain a list of known networks and the next router in the path to reach the destination network.
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Bridge A bridge connects two segments within the same subnet. Bridges learn which side a host resides on by copying the MAC address of the source device and placing it into the MAC address table. The port number which the frame entered is also recorded in the table and associated with the source MAC address. Another functionality of a bridge is to convert one type of transmission medium into another. A common example of this is a wireless bridge, which converts wired transmissions into wireless transmissions, and vice versa. In addition to the physical infrastructure, networks are also made up of other networking devices that provide specific services or perform a specific role.
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