with chronic systemic disease or inflammation o Same S/S as Iron Deficiency Anemia Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn o ABO blood incompatibility or RH incompatibility between mother and fetus. o Rarely causes HDN in first fetus, but o Can occur only if antigens on fetal erythrocytes differ from antigens on maternal erythrocytes o Maternal – fetal incompatibilities exist if Mild HDN: ● May appear healthy or slightly pale with slight enlargement of liver and spleen
subsequent pregnancies may be at risk mother and fetus differ in ABO blood type or if the fetus is RH + and mother is RH - Severe HDN ● Pronounced pallor, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly ● Neonatal jaundice ● Kernicterus – bilirubin deposited in brain Sickle Cell Disease ● African American descent primarily o Some mediterranean, middle eastern, and indian populations ● Increased risk factors ● Dehydration ● Hypoxia ● Infection ● Fever ● Group of disorders characterized by the presence of an abnormal form of hemoglobin – hemoglobin S (HbS) within the erythrocytes PGroup of disorders characterized by the presence of an abnormal form of hemoglobin – hemoglobin S (HbS) within the erythrocytes o Aplastic Crisis o Transient cessation in red blood cell production resulting in acute anemia. Often caused by viral infection, parvovirus B19, which is the common cause of fifth disease in children o Virus causes temporary shut down of RBC production in bone marrow, while hemolysis and desctruction of RBC’s continues o Severe drop in HgB with low reticulocyte count o Sequestration Crisis o Large amounts of blood become pooled in liver and spleen, can lead to cardiovascular collapse o Only seen in young children o Hyperhemolytic Crisis o Accelerated rate of RBC
destruction o Characterized by: Anemia, jaundice, and reticulocytosis i. Analyze the pathophysiology of pernicious anemia, folate deficiency anemia, iron deficiency anemia, anemia of chronic disease, hemolytic anemia of the newborn and sickle cell disease and describe the implications for clinical practice. Red Cell Disorders Pathophysiology Clinical Implications Pernicious Anemia Vitamin B12 deficiency caused by lack of intrinsic factor which results in mal- absorption of B12 Folate Deficiency It’s a reduction in RBC’s secondary to deficiency in folic acid Iron Deficiency Anemia of Chronic Disease Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn ABO or Rh incompatibility between mother and fetus Sickle Cell Disease Genetic autosomal recessive disease When there is a lack of oxygen, the HbS Monitor for acute crises
molecules come together and transform the normal bi-concave shape of the RBC to a sickle shape. Disorders of White Blood Cells 7. Analyze the etiology, clinical manifestations and pathophysiology of select white blood cell disorders. j. Differentiate between the meanings and etiologies of quantitative abnormalities of white blood cell counts (leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes, basophils).
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