A for the first time a shared faith in islam allowed

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Cognitive Psychology: Connecting Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience
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Chapter 7 / Exercise 1
Cognitive Psychology: Connecting Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience
Goldstein
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a. For the first time a shared faith in Islam allowed the newly organized state to mobilize the military potential of the entire Arab population. The Byzantine and Persian empires were weakened by decades of war with each other and by internal revolts. The two empires also underestimated the Arab threat. Merchant leaders of the new Islamic community wanted to capture profitable trade routes and wealthy agricultural regions. Individual Arabs found in military expansion a route to wealth and social promotion. Expansion provided a common task for the Arab community, which reinforced the fragile unity of the Islamic umma. Arabs were motivated by a religious dimension, as many viewed the mission of empire in terms of jihad, bringing righteous government to the peoples they conquered. Islam experienced success in attracting converts: Muhammad's religious message was attractive to many, while Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians could find familiar elements of their own faiths in Islam. Conquests called into question the power of old gods, while the growing prestige of the Arab Empire attracted many to Allah. Although forced conversions were rare, living in an Islamic- governed state provided a variety of incentives for claiming Muslim identity. Merchants found in Islam a religion friendly to commerce and in the Arab Empire a huge and secure arena for trade, while people aspiring to official positions found conversion to Islam an aid to social mobility. 3. In what ways might Islamic civilization be described as cosmopolitan, international, or global? a. The Islamic civilization embraced at least parts of virtually every other civilization in the Afro-Eurasian hemisphere. It fostered a network of commerce and exchange that facilitated the spread of crops, technologies, and ideas. The common commitment to Islam created an identity that transcended more local political and cultural identities in the Islamic world. 4. “Islam was simultaneously both a single world of shared meaning and interaction and a series of separate and distinct communities, often in conflict with one another.” What evidence could you provide to support both sides of this argument? a. At the core of a single Islamic world was a common commitment to Islam. The ulama through education and Sufis through their associations served to bind the Islamic world together. It also cohered as an immense arena of exchange in which goods, technologies, crops, and ideas circulated widely. However, Islam was separate and distinct in that is was politically fragmented. It included numerous distinct and sometimes hostile religious traditions, including Sunni/Shia and ulama/Sufi splits. It embraced distinctive cultural traditions from sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia that resulted in different attitudes toward social and cultural norms, such as those concerning women.
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Cognitive Psychology: Connecting Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience
The document you are viewing contains questions related to this textbook.
Chapter 7 / Exercise 1
Cognitive Psychology: Connecting Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience
Goldstein
Expert Verified

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