World we can gure out the laws that govern these

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world, we can gure out the laws that govern these events, and then use these laws to make predictions about what might happen, and then experiment to see whether those predictions come true The Scientic Method -Relies on the processes of logical reasoning derived from philosophy -Start with big and general ideas and apply them to specic situations -This approach is called deductive reasoning -Sir Francis Bacon believed that deductive reasoning was too susceptible to the thinkers biases (distorted beliefs on a persons subjective sense of reality) -Personal beliefs or conventional wisdom that a particular thinker mistakenly accepts as broad, basic truths -Widely accepted conventional wisdom can be incomplete, biased, or just wrong -Inductive Reasoning: reasoning process proceeding from small specic situations to more general truths - argued that the approach in the opposite direction would avoid bias, to do so one would use inductive reasoning (from specic facts or observations to general ideas) -Thinkers use controlled direct observations to generate broad conclusions, and over time such conclusions are combined to achieve non-biased truths about the laws of the universe -Psychologists using inductive reasoning would begin the search for natural laws by making empirical, or objectively testable, observations of mental processes and behaviors (things people do or think) -Empirical: able to be tested in objective ways -Their cumulative observations would in turn lead them to develop theories (ideas about laws that govern phenomena) or big ideas about the laws that govern those processes and behaviors -Both induction and observation alone cannot discover and specify all the potential factors affecting human behavior -Psychologists today use a combined method called hypothetico-deductive reasoning -Hypothetic-deductive reasoning: process of modern science where scientists begin with an educated guess, perhaps based on previous research, about how the world works, and then set about designing small controlled observations to support or invalidate that hypothesis -Begins with deduction: identifying a hypothesis -psychologists set out to create controlled observations that will prove or disprove their hypotheses -Scientic Theory: Make observations, develop hypothesis, test hypothesis, build a theory Goals of Psychology -Psychology attempts to isolate fundamental elements of behaviour and mental processes, psychologists face an additional task because behavior is determine by
many such factors simultaneously. -basic factors affecting behaviour can be temporary or permanent xtures in a persons life -Psychology is not objective -The idea behind psychological research: to isolate the relative contribution of such factors and to think about how these factors come together across different situations to inuence human behaviour -what psychologists study does not have a clear and observable physical reality like the basic units of study in other scientic elds -Behaviors, sensations, or physiological responses can be observed, measured, and explained

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