These studies show correlation it depends on the study design Causality One of

These studies show correlation it depends on the

This preview shows page 2 - 4 out of 4 pages.

These studies show correlation, it depends on the study design • Causality: - One of the main reasons stats is used to answer questions about causality/causation • two-way tables: - Also known as a contingency table: is a frequency table that summarizes two potentially related categorical variables by displaying how many times each combination of categories occurs in the data • conditional proportions: - How to calculate conditional proportions • association: - The relationship between two variables which make them statistically dependent • confounding variable: - Is associated to both the explanatory variable and the response variable - Its effects on the response cannot be separated from those of the explanatory variable - Thus, we can’t draw any cause and effect conclusions when confounding variables are present
Image of page 2
- Can be found in observational studies → can’t conclude causation from these kinds of studies - Doesn’t mean that explanatory isn’t influencing the response - Association may not imply causation, but can be a pretty big hint • Experiments (treatment vs control group): - Researcher deliberately manipulates the treatment variable and assigns the subject to those treatments, usually at random - Treatment group: the variable/treatment is applied to them - Control group: unaffected by the variable • random assignment: - Control confounding variables - Randomly assign people into groups, so variables that could have an effect on the response should be equalized between the two groups and therefore should not be confounding - Cause and effect are possible -
Image of page 3
Image of page 4

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 4 pages?

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors