Ex someone afraid of elevators actively avoids

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Ex – someone afraid of elevators actively avoids elevators o (2) Catastrophic thoughts – threat perceived is much more extreme than one would ordinarily perceive Ex – someone afraid of elevators is worried about getting stuck and dying in there One way to treat anxiety is to make the patient confront the feared situation or feared object over and over again o Causes anxiety to be habituated & allows the link btwn fear response and situation to be extinguished Feelings of anxiety might be aversive but not necessarily dangerous or something to be avoided
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o Anxiety sensitivity – extent that you are sensitive to physical sensations associated w/ fear & anxiety Anxiety sensitivity studied in lab by inducing physical sensations that you might feel in a panic situation o One way is to have you breather solution w/ lots of CO 2 which causes anxiety and feeling of panic attack People high in anxiety sensitivity who frame internal experiences & physical sensations are dangerous are at much higher risk of developing an anxiety disorder o As a person learns a certain sensation is not dangerous, their anxiety to it habituates Who’s in the Expert’s Chair – Chris Beavers People refer to depression as common cold of psychiatry o 10% of men and 25% of women will have 1 episode of clinical depression during the course of their life Normal to feel sad from time to time, but depression is a combination of symptoms o One symptom is feeling sad nearly every day for at least a couple of weeks o Other symptoms – losing interest, difficulty concentrating, losing or gaining weight, not sleeping well Another symptom of depression is worthlessness – thinking you don’t measure up to standards of other people o Global assessment where you see your value as less than the average person o People more pessimistic of their future & think negatively about themselves and the world o Major red flag is someone thinks world is better off w/o them or thinks they’re better not living There are many different ways to measure negative thinking o (1) Ask somebody – ask how they view themselves o (2) Computer tasks – measure different cognitive processes like attention You can present people w/ emotional images & measure how long their look at different images Someone prone to depression would attend or spend longer looking at negative images Harder for them to switch attention from negative image toward other images Tendency to have difficulty shifting attention is associated w/ ruminative thought o Ruminative thought – ruminate about negative material almost naturally and w/o effort o People currently depressed show this tendency more strongly One study measured tendency to view negative stimuli in soldier before deployment o People w/ tendency before deployment were more likely to report depression in the war zone o When something negative happens, they are more likely to focus on it and ruminate on it Antidepressants can be effective for more severe levels of depression
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