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oFrom Zahle in Lebanon. Layla Ba’albaki (I live)oFeminist novel, rare literary style at the time.Layla OusseiranGhada al-SammanoFrom Damascuso18 when she wrote her first novel.oBecame a popular journalist. 1Free Verse Movement (since 1960)Many cultures around the world wrote in rhyme poetry that was balanced.Free verse: no rhyming, rhythm -> writing whatever comes to mind. Three greatest Arab poets of the past 50 years: Adonis(Ali Ahmad Said Esber), Mahmoud Darwish& Nizar Kabbani. Yusuf al-Khal Mahmoud Darwish Nazek al-MalaikaThe Arab Novel1Novels of ReconciliationDepicting social reality in a state of harmony and are combined with concern about threatening changes.Convincing people that they must accept their density (ex. you were born poor..)Fantasy novels -> "everything is great"Examples: novels of Tawfiq al-Hakim (1933, 1938)
1Novels of ExposureExposing the weakness of society & its institutions without exhibiting real commitment to the restructuring of the existing order.oExample: novels of Nagib Mahfouz, Jabra Ibrahim, Tayyib Salih.1Novels of Revolutionary ChangeCommitted to revolutionary change in society, have more pronounced ideologies.oExamples: novels of Kahlil Gibran, Abdelrahman Munif, Abdel Rahman Sharqawi, Ghassan Kanafani, Yusuf al-Qa'eed. These authors got their ideas from French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre (leader of existentialism) Belief that people live because they are "cowards"…too afraid to speak up and say what they really mean.Engaged literature, popularized in the immediate post-World War II ear when French existentialists pushed the idea of the artist's serious responsibilitiesto society:That a person defines himself by consciously engaging in willed action.The position was a reaction against the creed of "art for art's sake" & against the "bourgeois" writer, whose obligations was to his craft rather than his audience.Engagement is an individual moral challenge that involved the responsibility of adapting his freely made choices to socially useful ends. oAbdul Rahman al-Sharqawi described the lives of the rural poor in his novel al-Ard (The Earth)