The Agency of Children, Work, and Social Change in the South Pare Mountains, Tanzania. Anthropology of Work Review 17:8-19.The author describes the agricultural work of children in South Pare Mountains,Tanzania, and argues that the work of children is not only determined or conditioned by households, gender, or kinship, but, also by the market, cultural meanings and social agencies embedded in work roles. Children increase their agency and cultivate their market strategies as they position themselves in the market economy. Porter suggests that policy makers and planners should be more aware of broad processes of economic transformation that affect the children.Tanzania, South PareChild laborCultural anthropologyPolicy relevancePost, David. 2002.Children’s Work, Schooling, and Welfare in Latin America. Colorado: Westview Press.This book is a comparative case study of child labor (age 12-17 years), schooling, and family welfare within and between Mexico, Chile, and Peru. Post, an educationalist, presents his original analysis of household survey and school enrollment data, and interprets the trends in the children’s time and energy allocation for home, family, school, and work.ComparativeMexico28
ChilePeruChild laborSchoolingFamily welfareSocial scienceRende Taylor, Lisa. 2005.Dangerous Trade-offs: The Behavioral Ecology of Child Labor and Prostitution in Rural Northern Thailand. Current Anthropology 46:411-431.Rende Taylor, a regional counter-trafficking coordinator for the Asia Foundation, describes her findings about the relations between child labor, trafficking, prostitution and parental wealth, based on her field research in two northern villages in Thailand. For instance while first-born daughters may seen as vulnerable to exploitation and hazardous forms of work, they are often protected because of the recognition of their important rolesat home, especially taking care of younger siblings.ThailandChild laborChild prostitutesChild traffickingKinship and familySociobiological anthropologyRigi, Jakob. 2003.The Conditions of Post-Soviet Dispossessed Youth and Work in Almaty, Kazakhstan. Critique of Anthropology 23:35-49.The author analyzes the condition of youth and their attitudes to work in post-Soviet Kazakhstan. The neo-liberal reform created a large number of dispossessed youth. The government and markets saw the dispossessed youth as lacking knowledge and skillsrequired in market values due to lack of formal qualification such as education. Rigi argues that those dispossessed youth actually have more sophisticated practical knowledge and more complex social survival skills than elite youth, due to their independent street life at an earlier age.KazakhstanYouth unemploymentSocial marginalizationPost-Soviet changeCultural anthropologySalazar, M.C. 1991.