Of france rebelled again which caused charles to

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of France, rebelled again, which caused Charles to retreat to the Netherlands. c. The church believed Luther as heresy and prisoned him, while Frederick the Wise of Saxony saved Luther from public examination. d. Religious reformation used as political tool (see the above) 2. Princes and Their Politics a. Religious Reformation started as a theological product, and gradually turned into political useful stuff. b. Political leader took church’s land and supported those reformers. ii. The Power of Print 1. The Power of Print a. 1520: 250+ vernacular editions of Luther’s works b. 1523: ~400 vernacular editions c. # of pamphlets published, 1500-1530: 10,000 d. % Concerning Reformation Issues: 75% e. % Written Just by Luther: 20% f. % Written Just by Luther: 20% g. % Increase between 1517 and 1518: 530% 2. The First Media Campaign a. True and False Religion 1545: the holy communion by the protestants and ride to hell of the Catholics b. Anti-Papal Propaganda i. Wolf devouring innocent sheep ii. pope Leo X and Cardinals as Animals iii. monk calf at Freiberg and Papal Ass at Rome iv. Devouring Indulgences v. Satirical World Map of Papalism vi. Luther Falling Into Toilet 3. The Nature of the Message 2. Reformed Creativity and the Fragmentation of Protestantism a. The Question of the Sacraments / Sacraments and Society b. Switzerland: First Split in the Reformation i. The Eucharist and the end of Protestant Communion 1. Huldrich Zwingli 1484-1531
2. 理念相似但是两位发起人并没有事先联系 (95 these and 67 conclusions) 3. Disputation in key doctrine: Luther – consubstantian (real presence of Christ) and Zwingli – transubstantion (the mass was only representative and memorial – Christ was not present) 4. Followers: a. The Reformation too conservative -> Anabaptists i. Anabaptists believe that baptism is valid only when the candidate confesses his or her faith in Christ and wants to be baptized. This believer's baptism is opposed to baptism of infants, who are not able to make a conscious decision to be baptized. ii. radical Zwinglians fried and ate sausages during Lent in Zurich city square by way of protest against the Church teaching of good works b. Mysticism and humanism (Erasmus) ii. Godly City: The Purities of Protestantism 1. John Calvin 1509-1564, Institutes of the Christian Religion 2. the work and writings of John Calvin were influential in establishing a loose consensus among various groups in Switzerland, Scotland, Hungary, Germany and elsewhere. 3. After the expulsion of its Bishop in 1526, and the unsuccessful attempts of the Berne reformer Guillaume (William) Farel, Calvin was asked to use the organizational skill he had gathered as a student of law to discipline the "fallen city" of Geneva. 4. Collaboration Church affairs & city council, morality in all area of life 5. Geneva – unofficial capital of protestant movement, refuge for exiles and educate them to be Calvinist missionaries -> form French Huguenots, conversion of Scotland 6. Spread influence, Constantinople by 17c 7. With Luther: a. Similar: foundation, Augustinism (women, nuns) – struggle: Pelagianism -- can become sinless after efforts b. Difference: Double-predestination, Holy communion 8.

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