Press gave a great deal of publicity to malcolm x

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Press gave a great deal of publicity to Malcolm X because of his controversial statements made dramatic news stories  two effects: his call for armed self- defense frightened most whites and many moderate African Americans and reports of the attention Malcolm received awakened resentment in some other members of the Nation of Islam Ballots or Bullets? March 1964 Malcolm broke with Elijah Muhammad over differences in strategy and doctrine and formed another Muslim organization  a month later he embarked on a pilgrimage to Mecca, in Saudi Arabia  he learned about the orthodox Islam preached racial equality and he worshipped alongside people from many countries  when he returned to the US his attitude toward whites changed radically Because of his split with the Black Muslims, he believed his like might be in danger Black Power Black power: was “a call for black people to begin to define their own goals and to lead their own organizations” King urged Stokely Carmichael to stop using the phrase because he believed it would provoke African Americans to use violence and antagonize whites  Carmichael refused and urged SNCC to stop recruiting whites and to focus on developing African American pride Black Panthers In Oakland, California, in October 1966, Huey Newton and Bobby Seale founded a political party known as the Black Panthers to fight police brutality in the ghetto  the part advocated self-sufficiency for African American communities, as well as full employment and decent housing  members maintained that African Americans should be exempt from military service because an unfair number of black youths had been drafted to serve in Vietnam Panthers preached self-defense and sold copies of the writing of Mao Zedong, leader of the Chinese Communist revolution Several police shootouts occurred between the Panthers and the police Many of the Panther’s activities – the establishment of daycare centers, free breakfast programs, free medical clinics, assistance to the homeless, and other services – won support in the ghettos 1968 – A Turning Point in Civil Rights
King’s Death Reactions to King’s Death Polarization: separation into opposite camps Rage over King’s death led to the worst urban rioting in US history  over 100 cities exploded in flames Legacy of the Civil Rights Movement Kerner Commission: Johnson appointed to study the causes of urban violence Civil Rights Gains Civil rights movement ended de jure segregation by bringing about legal protection for the civil rights of all Americans Civil Rights Act of 1968: ended discrimination in housing Unfinished Work Affirmative Action: a policy that seeks to correct the effects of past discrimination by favoring the groups who were previously disadvantaged

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