poor diet, thyroid disorders, hyperprolactinemia, PCOS, or as the result of hormonal changes during early adolescence, pregnancy, or the perimenopausal period Oligomenorrhea Scant menses Occurs when the cycles are longer than 6-7 weeks Usually related to hormonal imbalances like PCOS Menorrhagia Excessive or prolonged menstruation that occurs at regular intervals Metrorrhagia Bleeding or variable amount between menstrual periods May be mild spotting at ovulation or break through bleeding due to combination oral contraception May be very severe causing anemia or hypovolemic shock Menometrorrhagia Irregular, excessive, prolonged menstruation Postmenopausal bleeding Caused by endometrial polyps, endometrial hyperplasia, or uterine cancer
Cystocele Prolapsed Bladder Results from childbirth, constipation, violent coughing, heavy lifting, or other pelvic muscle strain Manifestations o Feeling pressure in the pelvis and vagina o Discomfort when straining o Feeling that the bladder hasn't fully emptied after urinating Treatment o Kegel exercise Contracting the pelvic muscles as if to stop the flow of urine. Done to strengthen these muscles o Physical therapy Restores muscle strength and function through exercise o Pessary A ring inserted into the vagina to support the pelvic organs (uterus, bladder, rectum) o Surgery Colporrhaphy Surgical repair of a defect in the wall of the vagina. Rectocele Prolapsed Rectum Manifestations o Soft bulge of tissue in the vagina that may or may not protrude through the vaginal opening o Difficulty with having a bowel movement. o Pain in the pelvis or rectum o Pain during sexual intercourse o Constipation o Inability to empty bowels o Inability to pass stool, or leaking of stool o Sexual dysfunction o Vaginal bulge Treatment o Dietary fiber
The parts of plant foods that the body can't digest. Helps to control blood sugar, soften stools, and maintain bowel health o Surgery Rectocele repair Procedure to correct weakened tissue between the vagina and rectum Colporrhaphy Surgical repair of a defect in the wall of the vagina. o Kegel exercise Contracting the pelvic muscles as if to stop the flow of urine. Done to strengthen these muscles o Pessary A ring inserted into the vagina to support the pelvic organs (uterus, bladder, rectum) Endometriosis A condition in which cells from endometrial tissue implant and grow outside the uterus These tissue implants respond to estrogen and progesterone just as the endometrial lining does Each month the implants mature, open, and bleed into the pelvic cavity causing pain, fibrosis, and adhesions May occur anywhere in the body but most common in the lower parts if the pelvis High incidence of infertility Cause o Unknown o But thought to be due to impaired cellular and humoral immunity o May be an autoimmune disease Risk Factors o Menarche before age of 11 o
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- Cortisol, Androgens