- ATP is generated when a high- energy phosphate group is transferred directly from an intermediate phosphorylated metabolic compound to ADP. Occurs in the cytosol (Occurs twice in glycolysis)
Chapter 25 16
Chapter 25 17 Fate of Carbohydrates (Since glucose is the body's preferred source for synthesizing ATP, the fate of absorbed glucose depends on the energy needs of body cells.) 1. ATP production. If the cells require immediate energy, glucose is oxidized by the cells. 2. Amino Acid synthesis . Glucose can be used to form amino acids, which then can be incorporated into proteins. 3. Glycogenesis . The liver can store a small amount of excess glucose by converting it to glycogen. Glycogenolysis . Hepatic cells can convert glycogen back to glucose and release it into the blood, when blood glucose starts to decrease. *Skeletal muscle fibers (cells) can also store glycogen and oxidize if to provide ATP for their use. However, they lack the enzyme needed to release glucose back into the blood. 4. Lipogenesis . If the glycogen storage are filled up, liver cells and fat cells can transform the glucose to glycerol and fatty acids that can be used for synthesis of triglycerides. (natural fats) -Triglycerides (natural fats) then are deposited in adipose tissue, which has virtually unlimited storage capacity. 5. Excretion in Urine . Excess glucose occasionally is excreted in the urine. (Normally, this happens only when a meal containing mostly carbohydrate and no triglycerides is eaten. Without the inhibiting effect of triglycerides, the stomach empties its contents quickly, and the carbohydrates are all digested at the same time. As a result, a large amount of glucose suddenly floods into the bloodstream.)
Chapter 25 18
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