Threat overcoming resistance to change 6 tactics john

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threat Overcoming Resistance to Change: 6 Tactics (John Kotter & Leonard Schlesinger ) 1. Education & communication ↓reduce resistance thru communicating w/ employees to help them see the logic of a change (e.g. one-on-one discussions, memos, group presentations, reports) 2. Participation & involvement before making a change, bring those opposed into decision process; their involvement ↓resistance, obtain commitment, ↑quality of change decision 3. Facilitation & support offer supportive efforts to reduce resistance; provision of various efforts to facilitate adjustment (e.g. employee counseling & therapy, new-skills training, short paid leave of absence) 4. Negotiation & agreement exchange sth of value for a dec. in resistance e.g. if resistance is centred in a few powerful ppl, negotiate specific reward that’ll meet their needs 5. Manipulation & co-optation twist & distort facts to make them appear more attractive, withhold info, create false rumours to get employees to accept a change *co-optation (form of both manipulation & participation) seeks to buy off leaders of a resistance group by giving them key role in the change decision
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P ART 5: R EORGANIZING THE W ORKPLACE 6. Explicit & implicit coercion application of direct threats/force upon resisters (e.g. threats of transfer, loss of promotions, -ve performance evaluations, poor letter of recommendation) e.g. corporate mngmnt determined to close manufacturing plant if employees don’t agree to pay cut Strategies for Overcoming Resistance to Change A PPROACH C OMMONLY U SED IN S ITUATIONS A DVANTAGES D RAWBACKS Education + Communication where there is a lack of info / inaccurate info & analysis once persuaded, ppl will often help w/ implementation of change very time-consuming if lots of ppl are involved Participation + Involvement where initiators lack info to design the change, & where others have considerable power to resist participants will be committed to implementing change, & any relevant info they have will be integrated into the change plan very time-consuming if participators design an inappropriate change Facilitation + Support where ppl are resisting b/c of adjustment problems no other approach works as well w/ adjustment problems can be time-consuming, expensive, but still fail Negotiation + Agreement where some one/group will clearly lose out in a change, & that group has considerable power to resist sometimes a relatively easy way to avoid major resistance too expensive in many cases if it alerts others to negotiate for compliance Manipulation + Co-optation where other tactics won’t work, or are too expensive relatively quick, inexpensive solution lead to future problems if ppl feel manipulated Explicit + Implicit Coercion where speed is essential, & change initiators have considerable power speedy & can overcome any kind of resistance risky if it leaves ppl mad at initiators Politics of Change - push for change more likely to come from new employees to org (have less invested in status quo) or managers who are slightly removed from main power structure
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