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Maltose:A disaccharide made up of two glucose molecules. Derived from partial hydrolysis of starch. Lactose:Milk sugar. Galactose and glucose linked together. The chemical structures are not for our digestion. A lot of the population of the world cannot digest milk products. (Lactase deficiency is ~65% of the World.) Lactase is the enzyme that allows digestion of lactose. Sweetness:1.Fructose2.Honey (made up mostly of fructose)3.Sucrose (made up of glucose and fructose)4.GlucoseBeano:Prevents the gas from beans. Enzyme alpha-galactosidase; breaks down a variety of sugars that cause gas. Amylase:Produced in pancreatic and salivary glands. It will break down amylose (kind of starch) very rapidly, such that you will taste the glucose. (i.e. when you chew a piece of bread).Fibers:Cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and pectin are all fiber-like materials.Has been linked to a variety of contradictory situations; constipation, diarrhea, heart disease, etc...
Sugars and what they do in the body:Good News for Fructose:1.Low glycemic index – does not cause blood sugar to rise as much as sucrose, thus thought to be a good substitute for sucrose.2.Small amounts in food is ok. Bad News – Background:1.Too much at once is not good and the modern diet can have ~10% fructose.When glucose enters the bloodstream, insulin regulates it but fructose is processed in the liver and if there is too much, it makes fats. 2.Too much fat in the blood is a risk factor for heart disease.3.Fructose circumvents the appetite signaling system, so being filled up is not triggered as well and more consumption takes place. 4.Some evidence is accumulating that excess fructose causes insulin resistance leading to type 2 diabetes.5.Fructose promotes AGEs more than glucose.Sucrose Issues:Advanced Glycation End products is the linking of protein chains to a sugar unit. They contributeto the body in a number of ways. They can wind up in the lens of an eye and cause cataracts. Maillard Reaction: engagement of protein units that have an NH2 group at one end with carb units such that when you heat it, water is given up in a rapid fashion (toaster or oven) and leads to the browning of bread. Lesson 2: SugarThe origin and growing of sugar is debated; some say New Guinea, some say India. About 15% of the sugar cane plant is sucrose. This is a very harvestable item. Norbert Rillieux:Managed to lower the overall temperature necessary to get the sugar from the sugar canes. Sucrose is a carbohydrate, thus 1g of sugar = 4 calories = 1g of carbohydrate.Cane sugar requires 21 degrees Celsius to grow. World Consumption 2010-2016:~22-23 kg per capita. 178 billion kg of sugar. High Fructose Corn Syrup:
Corn starch is made of a polymer glucose – enzymes are used to break this down into single units of glucose. Can be up to 90% fructose.