a. Many studies find only a modest correlation between attitude and behaviour 2 . Corey 1937 Experimental Study of Cheating a. Attitudes toward cheating and actual cheating behaviour b. Participants took True-False exam c. They were then asked to give themselves a grade d. Correlation between cheating attitude and cheating close to zero i. Four factors explain why the correlation is not stronger 1 . The activation of the attitude 2 . The characteristics of the attitude 3 . The correspondence between attitude and behaviour 4 . Situational constraints on behaviour Summary Reciprocal relationship between attitudes and behaviour Attitudes shape behaviour, but not always consistently Contingent on … 1 . Strength and memorability 2 . Situational constraints 3 . Specificity 4 . Desire to resolve dissonance ALTRUISM and AGGRESSION Aggression බᤈԅ is any behaviour intended to harm another person that the target person wants to avoid. Heart surgery is not aggression A bungled assassination is aggression Altruism ڥ՜ԆԎ is helping that is intended to provide aid to someone else without expectation of any reward The good felling that may result is the reward Aggression/Altruism as instinctual ᚆ - Freud : we have an innate urge to destroy Sociobiology (E. Wilson 1975) 1 . Applies Darwinian ideas to animal/human behaviour
2 . Aggressive/Altruistic behaviour is selectively targeted to increase the chances that our own genes will be passed on to subsequent generations Evaluating the Evolutionary, Explanation of Aggression and Altruism 1 . Largely shaped by animal studies - can we generalize to humans? 2 . Cross-cultural variations in aggression/altruism - Decline in violent crime rate in Canada Social Learning 1 . Aggressive/Altruistic behaviours are learned - Bandura (1961) doll study a. Many children learn aggressive behaviour from their parents i. A longitudinal study of 717 boys found that boys who experienced harsh parenting practices at ages 10 to 12 were more likely to be involved in violent dating relationships at age 16 ii. Altruism - Clary & Miller (1986): Parental influences on future child volunteering Violence and Media: Television Research studies on violence and media consistently report moderate positive correlations between television viewing and aggressive behaviour Causal order? 1 . Viewing => Aggression a. Factors i. Imitation ii. Cognitive priming iii. Legitimization iv. Desensitization v. Arousal 2 . Aggression => Viewing a. Circular process? Situational/Environmental Factors 1 . Bystander Effect a. Darley and Latane (1964) i. Students participating in discussion over intercom 1 . Participants hears one of the students having seizure. How quickly will they respond? ii. Varied conditions: number of other students (bystanders) participating (2;5;6) 1 . In reality, no other students in experiment (just recorded voices) b. The bystander effect refers to the fact that the greater the number of bystanders in an emergency, the less likely any one bystander will help.
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