End of Sectin Review Questions Study Group Version

International circuits today but it is likely to

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international circuits today, but it is likely to challenged in the future by the likes of  reformer Grotian and transformer Kantian powers like some of the Scandinavian states.  Also, China, which is considered to be a communist state, is a big threat , politically  and economically, to the concept and followers of maintainer realism.  8. Kal Holsti and others have stated that to be truly liberated intellectually and thus, politically is to acknowledge uncertainty and eschew all projects that reek of sovereign voices and intellectual closure. What does this have to do with the study of IR? What does this have to do with being a student in IR 210? International Relations, both when applied in the practical world and as a field of study, is based on the ‘smooshing’ together of different ideologies, worldviews and decisions, and the reaction and consequences of these unions. When this is the basis of IR, there is low amount of certainty of stability, and as such it is best to acknowledge uncertainty, as was done in the Bush and United Nations case. Then President Bush weighed in all his options and was still faced with uncertainty when the time to make a decision about the growing suspicions of arms building and human rights violations in Iraq came around. It was this unpredictability that also took the UN off guard as they did not know what decision to expect from Washington. The underlying thesis is that there were so many opposing views
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about what the optimum course of action should be- constructive realists, Hamiltonians, hawks, neo conservatives and liberal internationalists- that intellectual closure is a distant dream in making a decision that benefits the most people. Thus, leaders and major actors like nation states have to critical analyzers in order to correctly diagnose and treat the problem, and this intellectual liberation is only then achieved. Thus most of the major issues in IR like economic crises, balance of power and environmental concerns cannot seek closure while these different worldviews get their say. This is important as students of IR 210 as we learn that no one thought process is ‘right’ and singularly superior, but that all opinions count and to be intellectually liberated one should be able to entertain all the contrasting ideas, entertain them without accepting them and reach one’s own unique standpoint about the way in which to proceed. In some cases there may even be a way to take different sets of ideas and construct a better alternative from the culmination of the possible solutions and thus a lot of matters of conflict may be resolved with consensus. 9. With the four worlds in mind, what are the critical controversies that you believe will define the international politics agenda in the next ten years? Will that agenda differ for maintainer, reformer and transformer actors?
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