Category Abbreviation Duration m Date 1 Preparer P1 50 28 November 2008 2

Category abbreviation duration m date 1 preparer p1

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Category Abbreviation Duration (m) Date 1. Preparer P1 50 28 November 2008 2. Preparer P2 70 1 December 2008 3. Preparer P3 45 12 December 2008 4. Auditor A1 60 3 December 2008 5. Auditor A2 60 16 December 2008 6. Regulator R1 60 26 November 2008 7. Regulator R2 45 10 December 2008 8. Representative of the Chamber of Financial Auditors of Romania (Camera Auditorilor din Roma ˆnia) PB1 75 26 November 2008 9. Representative of the Body of Expert and Licensed Accountants of Romania (Corpul Expert¸ilor Contabili s ¸i Contabililor Autorizat¸i din Roma ˆnia) PB2 50 22 December 2008 10. User U1 50 10 August 2009 11. User U2 60 20 August 2009 Table I. List of interviews 83 IAS/IFRS implementation in Romania An institution is “a set of rules that governs human behavior and shapes social relations” (Lichtenstein, 1996, p. 244), and “is tacitly accepted as the way things are done, and, as such, are the unconscious assumptions which underpin organizational behavior” (Siti-Nabiha and Scapens, 2005, p. 46). More than that, institutions are generative of interests, identities and appropriate practice models (Lounsbury, 2008, p. 349). Institutionalization is the process whereby practices are developed and learned (Dillard et al., 2004, p. 508). “A significant element of
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institutionalization is an ongoing product of the political efforts of actors to accomplish their ends” (Idem, p. 510). With respect to institutional practices, the process of change is usually evolutionary and path dependent (Siti-Nabiha and Scapens, 2005, p. 47), meaning it is shaped by the existing institutions. Given the strongly embedded institutions, “y the new path will never be totally new; the new society will always contain many of the institutional elements that previously existed” (Lichtenstein, 1996, p. 247). The process by which an organization adopts an institutional practice is called isomorphism. DiMaggio and Powell (1983) (as used by Dillard et al., 2004; Mir and Rahaman, 2005; Tsamenyi et al., 2006) identify three mechanisms through which institutional change occurs: coercive, mimetic and normative. Coercive isomorphism results from external pressure, and certain practices are adopted as a result of governments’ pressures, capital markets or the expectations of the larger society. Mimetic isomorphism is seen as adopting the best practices in order to be more legitimate or successful. Normative isomorphism is given by the professionalization, in that the members of a profession define methods of work. Dillard et al. (2004) argue that the process of institutionalization evolves in a recursively cascading manner through three levels of socio-historical relationships: the societal level (political, economic and social systems), the organizational field (socio-economic configurations) and individual organizations. This framework is based on the ideas that institutions (at the organizational level) are affected by individuals, groups or organizations. The actors that may influence organizational institutions are: For example, governmental officials, regulators and legislators may be the primary agents at the economic and political level. Industry leaders, labor unions and external consultants may have
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