limit of 4,294,967,296 possible addresses. As the use of the Internet has proliferated, the number of IP addresses needed has grown to the point where the use of IPv4 addresses will be exhausted. This has led to the new IPv6 standard, which is currently being phased in. The IPv6 standard is formatted as eight groups of four hexadecimal digits, such as 2001:0db8:85a3:0042:1000:8a2e:0370:7334. The IPv6 standard has a limit of 3.4×1038 possible addresses. For more detail about the new IPv6 standard, see this Wikipedia article.7.Domain name: If you had to try to remember the IP address of every web server you wanted to8.access, the Internet would not be nearly as easy to use. A domain name is a human-friendly name for a device on the Internet. These names generally consist of a descriptive text followed by the top-level domain (TLD). For example, Wikepedia’s domain name is wikipedia.org; wikipedia describes the organization and .org is the top-level domain. In this case, the .org TLD is designed for nonprofit organizations. Other well-known TLDs include .com, .net, and .gov. Fora complete list and description of domain names, see this Wikipedia article.9.DNS: DNS stands for “domain name system,” which acts as the directory on the Internet. When a request to access a device with a domain name is given, a DNS server is queried. It returns the IP address of the device requested, allowing for proper routing.10. Packet-switching: When a packet is sent from one device out over the Internet, it does not followa straight path to its destination. Instead, it is passed from one router to another across the Internet until it is reaches its destination. In fact, sometimes two packets from the same message will take different routes! Sometimes, packets will arrive at their destination out of order. When this happens, the receiving device restores them to their proper order. For more details on packet- switching, see this interactive web page.11. Protocol: In computer networking, a protocol is the set of rules that allow two (or more) devices to exchange information back and forth across the network.in 1990, when Tim Berners-Lee introduced his World Wide Web project, which provided an easy way tonavigate the Internet through the use of linked text (hypertext)Netscape Navigator, the first commercial web browser, in 1994The Dot-Com Bubble:In the 1980s and early 1990s, the Internet was being managed by the National Science Foundation (NSF)In 1991, the NSF transferred its role to three other organizations, thus getting the US government out ofdirect control over the Internet and essentially opening up commerce onlineA frenzy of investment in new dot-com companies took place in the late 1990s, running up the stock market to new highs on a daily basis. This investment bubble was driven by the fact that investors knew that online commerce would change everything. Unfortunately, many of these new companies had poor business models and ended up with little to show for all of the funds that were invested in them. In 2000 and 2001, the bubble burst and many of these new companies went out of business 23 | P a g e
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