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In 64 CE, Nero enacted the mass execution of Christians (including Peter and Paul)●Stoic Christian deaths remind Romans of the old writings of CiceroJudaism and the Roman Empire●Long, complicated relationship●The Romans respected the Jewish people as an ancient people●Jews had some autonomy until the Jewish rebellionThe Conversion of the Roman Empire●In 249, Decius becomes Emperor, declares that Christians are the reason forsuffering and that the old gods are showing their wrath○Outbreaks of disease○Tribes push downward along the Rhine and Danube○Crop failures lead to food shortages●Thousands of Christians are slaughtered, land is taken●Ends with the death of Decius in 251●In the 280’s, the Roman Empire is on the brink of collapse
●In 284, Diocletian takes power and revives the Empire○Tries to stabilize populations■Is unsuccessful○Asks upper class members to take fiscal responsibility over cities of the Empire■Many refuse the requests of Diocletian○Gives control of borders to strong men○Introduces the Tetrarchy- a 4 part division of the Empire■2 Augusti- Emperors■2 Caesars- second to the Augustus○Launches a new campaign against Christians■Diocletian, Galerius, and Maximilian are heavily anti-Christian, but Constantius is light-handed when it comes to Christian punishment●In 305, Diocletian retires and becomes a farmer●As Diocletian and Maximian step down, Constantius and Galerius take their place●In 311, Galerius is dying of a terrible disease and as a last resort appeals to the Christian God by issuing the edict of toleration for Christians.●Galerius dies, and the Empire plunges into chaos●When Constantius dies, the soldier acclaim his son Constantine the Augustusin the west, but Galerius says that Licinius is the Augustus (nominally) and Constantine can be the Caesar●Maxentius, son of Maximilian, takes over Rome●Constantine marries the sister of Maxentius, FlaviusWednesday, September 16th, 2015In the Empire, less than 10% of the population was Christian, most of whom were concentrated in the east (not Constantine’s territory)Monday, September 21st, 2015I. Germanic Invasions/Migrations A.Background B.Visigoths and Battle of Adrianoplea.Hinges on Theodosius II, until he diedb.In 410, Rome is sacked by the Visigoths, an unforeseen and unprecedented defeatc.Lead by Alricd.Pushed into Spain, creating an amazing kingdom that lasts until the early 700’s until conquered by the Arab MuslimsC.Ostrogoths and Theodorica.Eventually fall under the rule of the Hunsb.After the death of Attila the Hun, the Huns retreat and the Ostrogothsbecome somewhat hostage of the Byzantine-Roman Empirec.When Theodoric takes power, he wants to transform the Ostrogothic Empire
d.When Odoacer takes control of the west of the Empire in 476, the last emperor takes control, he also become annoying to emperor Zenoe.Zeno gives Theodoric Italy if he can overthrow OdoacerD. Vandalsa.Sacked romeb.Were cleared out by JustinianE.Angles, Saxons and Jutesa.