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C.Protests and Reforms1.Workers initially responded to the harsh working conditions by changing jobs frequently, not reporting for work, doing poor quality work when not closely watched, and by engaging in riots or strikes. Workers gradually moved beyond the stage of individual, unorganized resistance to create organizations for collective action: benevolent societies and trade unions.2.Mass movements persuaded the British government to investigate the abuses of industrial life and to offer ameliorative legislation that included the Factory Act of 1833, the Mines Act of 1842, and the repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846. In Europe, the revolutions of 1848 revealed widespread discontent, but European governments did not seek reform through accommodation.V.Industrialization and the Nonindustrial WorldA.China, Egypt, and India1.New military technologies changed the balance of power between Europe and China, allowing Britain to defeat the Chinese quickly and easily.
2.In the early nineteenth century Egypt’s ruler Muhammad Ali undertook a program of industrialization that was funded by the export of wheat and cotton and protected by high tariffs on imported goods.3.The prospect of a powerful modern Egypt posed a threat to the British, so in 1839 Britain forced Muhammad Ali to eliminate all import duties. Without tariff protection, Egypt’s industries could not compete with cheap British products; Egypt became an economic dependency of Britain.4.Cheap machine-made British textiles forced Indian spinners and hand weavers out of work. Most became landless peasants, and India became an exporter of raw materials and an importer of British industrial goods.5.Railroads, coal mining, and telegraph lines were introduced to India in the mid-nineteenth century. Some Indian entrepreneurs were able to establish their own textile mills, but overall, India’s industrialization proceeded at a very slow pace because the British administration did nothing to encourage Indian industry.