Army trading company limited satcol which processes

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Army Trading Company Limited (SATCoL) which processes the donated clothes and exports it to buyers in Eastern Europe; Oxfam International (an exported-oriented subsidiary of Oxfam) on the other hand exports 50 % of its total collection to West Africa to traders in those markets, thus creating business opportunities (Brooks 2013 ). Similarly, Fretex is company managing textile col- lection operation in Norway and is owned by The Salvation Army. Fretex International, jointly owned by Fretex, Norway, and Myrona, Sweden, is the wing that generates business opportunities by exporting part of the collected garments to Africa and Asia. Sometimes such operating models are classi fi ed by charities as social businesses, defending the pro fi t-making export orientation, by organizing Sustainable Design and Business Models in Textile and Fashion 127
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value-added activities locally in poorer countries. Oxfam, for instance, has estab- lished a pilot local processing enterprise in Senegal called Frip Ethique aimed at generating local employment (Brooks 2013 ). However, there are a lot of rising criticisms against this trade as underlying business motives and transactions are often not publicized and are concealed back-stage in contrast to the foregrounded charitable acts of donation (Brooks 2013 ). On the other hand, there are small fashion social enterprises with diverse social fundaments, such as supporting recovering addicts, refugees, and aging. The North Circular is a UK-based producer of luxury knitwear that uses a local network of talented home knitters (mostly aging woman) to mobilize localized production (The North Circular 2016 ), while Who Made Your Pants?, an UK-based Lingerie brand, employs and supports women refugees from the Southampton area. Set up as workers cooperative, it is funded by small grants and revenue and any pro fi t made is returned to the business and any leftover is shared between the members and democratically agreed good causes (Reddy 2014 ). On a systems level, such social and/or hybrid business models integrate business with varied stakeholders through participatory approaches, which may include nontraditional approaches (e.g., collaboration between for-pro fi t and nonpro fi t organizations or with the local community) or new organizational designs (e.g., hybrid structures). Interorganizational collaboration in this regard has emerged very strongly to shift from the fundamentals of ego-centric business models to more altruistic col- laborative business models (CBMs). CBMs in this context refer to a value creating system or network where multiple organizations that might differ in type (industry, public research, nonpro fi t), their position in the value chain (manufacturing, service, etc.), and industry and work together to create and capture value at the systemic level, more than the value created and captured for each stakeholder (Breuer and L ü deke-Freund 2014 ; Rohrbeck et al. 2013 ). In a smaller level, the charity orga- nizations have collaborated with fashion retailers to organize collection and
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