• 5,Changing culture : The introduction of the horse pushed this culture further into the nomadic and warrior lifestyle and into the Great Plains. • The introduction of the train both constrained this culture and offered new opportunities, as we will see.
The Lakota's culture • 3.Gender roles : • 1,While women had been important in hunting game with the introduction of the horse, they became more subordinate as the men became the hunters. • Yet they shared a partnership with their proud nomadic men. • 2,Women, nevertheless, were important as a moral guides. For example, when Crazy Horse was killed, they cut gashes into their foreheads and cried “Who is going to lead us now.“ (Video: Its a Good Day to Die)
4.Their Relationship with other Tribes & Relations with Euro-Americans by the 1840s. • By the 1840s, there were about 20,000 Lakota's in the Midwestern states of the Dakotas, Wyoming, and Montana . • The Lakota dominated other tribes but also formed alliances with them against Euro-Americans. Lakota means "allies." They formed alliances with the Cheyenne, Arapaho.
B.Lakota v. Euro-American settlers and gold seekers a la Video: Its a Good Day to Die • 1.By 1850, the Lakota saw the United States and their own nations as expanding nations. • 1851 Treaty of Fort Laramie : Lakota Chief Black Hawk claimed ownership of the Black Hills “by right of conquest” over the Cheyenne & Arapaho. This treaty gave US right to build forts and roads, to establish boundaries for tribes territories. In return Nastive peoples would receive annual payments for the loss of game and damages from white travelers. • 2.Series of events (actions of settlers, gold-seekers and the army) that changed the Lakota's view towards Euro-Americans: • 1, 1848 Gold Rush in CA: settlers and miners intruded up Lakota land. • 2, 1854 Mormon cow incident : Lt. Graton and troops kills chief. In retaliation, Lakota kill him and his 30 troops.
Lakota v. Euro-American settlers and gold seekers a la Video: Its a Good Day to Die 3,In 1862, Gold strike in Montana: Bozeman Trial and Fort were constructed in Powder River Valley. In 1866 Red Cloud surrounded Ft Phil Carney and lured Capt. Fetterman and 100 troops into a trap. General Harney's intimidation campaign: "I am the Indian's best friend or worst enemy." Raids Lakota village in Nebr. , killing Little Thunder and others. Crazy Horse saw the remains. 4, In 1874 Gold was found in the Black Hills. This set the stage for Little Big Horn battle.
C.Lakota 1868: the Lakota's Response to these Intrusions
1.Red Cloud & the Reservation System • Red Cloud was a brave leader who defeated Euro- Americans in battle. • However, in 1868,he was tricked into signing Treaty of Medicine Lodge which in effect forced the Lakota on to reservations. Red Cloud became a "reservation Indian" for life. • He not fight the whites anymore: Because in 1870 when he went to Washington, he saw how vast the Euro- American population and how well-armed the American military was. Instead his Oglala Lakota fought the Pawnee.
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- History, Pony Express, Native Americans in the United States, Lakota people, Battle of the Little Bighorn, Sitting Bull