Orders that jews are concentrated in major cities

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Orders that Jews are concentrated in major cities (ghettoization)Set up Council of Jewish Elders that will do Nazi biddingThis concentration of Jews was atemporary solutionNot final solution“for the time being, the first prerequisite for the final aim”Madagascar Plan (spring 1940)Heinrich Himmler proposes that Jews be banished to an African colony in MadagascaroSee if they can create their own colonyoGermany will not provide anythingWill tax the Jews and use this money to fund this projectoWill get all the Jews out of EuropeoNoted that it was far from Palestine so that they could not rebuild the Jewish raceReferred to as the “solution to the Jewish Question”Did deport 7,000 Jews to France to be sent to MadagascarFailed becauseoMadagascar could not accommodate millions of JewsoIsland was not under German control“I hope to completely erase the concept of Jews through the possibility of a greatemigration of all Jews to a colony in Africa or elsewhere.”-Himmler, May 1940Himmler argues that it would be lowly of Germany to simply exterminate the JewsReservationsSend Jews to a reservation in Central Poland, near LublinoInfluenced by American policyoJews would have to build their own infrastructure and work to benefit the NaziNazis were trying to answer a ‘territorial’ question
Phase 3: (1941-1945) “Final Solution”GhettosMajority of ghettos were in East PolandEstablish ghettos in the USSR after 1941 (invasion of USSR)oHad already started the final solution by exterminating the JewsSome were long-lasting, some were only a matter of weeksoLodz ghetto 1940-August 1944oWarsaw ghetto lasted for 3 yearsServed as a transitional holding pen until Jews were sent to death/concentration campsSegregates JewsoBlames Jews for diseases, violence, etc.Ghettos were located in the poorest, run-down part of the citiesWhy Ghettos are importantoJews had a small degree of self-government and control of their own livesoGhettos are the places where most Jews spent the most time during the HolocaustoGhettos became places of resistance once Jews began to know that they will beexterminatedWarsaw GhettoLargest ghetto in Europe (400,000+ people during peak times)Poles had to move out of the streets that were designated for the ghetto, Jews would taketheir placeJews in Warsaw formed 30% of the city populationoCrammed into a space that was 2.4% of the cityGhettos were cramped, congested, dirtyDesigned to further the humiliation and dehumanization of the JewsoJews were forced to remove their hat when they saw German officeroLibrary could not loan books to JewsClosed in November 19Non self-identifying jews were forced to live in the ghettoo2,000 CatholicsFood in WarsawoOfficial rationsGermans 2614 caloriesPoles 669 caloriesJews 184 caloriesoSome jobs in the ghetto were provided additional foodoSmuggling was the primary means for acquiring supplementary provisions

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Term
Summer
Professor
Gillerman
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