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Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 23-26 on your answer sheet. Research at Aberystwyth University Ross Piper and fellow zoologists at Aberystwyth University are using their expertise in 23. when undertaking bioprospecting with insects. They are especially interested in the compounds that insects produce to overpower and preserve their 24. ....... They are also interested in compounds which insects use to protect themselves from pathogenic bacteria and fungi found in their 25 Piper hopes that these substances will be useful in the development of drugs such as 26 ..........................
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READING PASSAGE 3 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below. The power of play Virtually every child, the world over, plays. The drive to play is so intense that children will do so in any circumstances, for instance when they have no real toys, or when parents do not actively encourage the behavior. In the eyes of a young child, ainning, pretending, and building are fun. Researchers and educators know that these playful activities benefit the development of the whole child across social, cognitive, physical, and emotional domains. Indeed, play is such an instrumental component to healthy child development that the United Nations High Commission on Human Rights (1989) recognized play as a fundamental right of every child. Yet, while experts continue to expound a powerful argument for the importance of play in children s lives, the actual time children spend playing continues to decrease. Today, children play eight hours less each week than their counterparts did two decades ago (Elkind 2008). Under pressure of rising academic standards, play is being replaced by test preparation in kindergartens and grade schools, and parents who aim to give their preschoolers a leg up are led to believe that flashcards and educational toys are the path to success. Our society has created a false dichotomy between play and learning. Through play, children learn to regulate their behavior, lay the foundations for later learning in science and mathematics, figure out the complex negotiations of social relationships, build a repertoire of creative problem-solving skills, and so much more. There is also an important role for adults in guiding children through playful learning opportunities. Full consensus on a formal definition of play continues to elude the researchers and theorists who study it. Definitions range from discrete descriptions of various types of play such as physical, construction, language, or symbolic play (Miller & Almon 2009), to lists of broad criteria, based on observations and attitudes, that are meant to capture the essence of all play behaviors (e.g. Rubin etal. 1983). A majority of the contemporary definitions of play focus on several key criteria. The founder of the National Institute for Play, Stuart Brown, has described play as anything that spontaneously is done for its own sake . More specifically, he says it appears purposeless, produces pleasure and joy, [and] leads one to the next
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