Singapore Fire Safety Engineering Guidelines 2015_1.pdf

Fine grid shall extend at least 5m in x y and z

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Fine grid shall extend at least 5m (in x, y and z direction) from the edge of burner in all directions. Progressive increase in grid resolution shall follow aspect ratio of 1:2. Mesh and grid resolution (ix) Duration of simulation For steady-state CFD modelling, the simulation should be iterated until the results converge. For transient CFD modelling, the simulation should continue until steady-state condition is observed. Duration of simulation
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28 As a guide the fire size should reach the design fire size. Temperature and visibility readings should be taken to demonstrate that the readings have stabilised. (x) Smoke management systems Relevant smoke management system i.e. engineered smoke control system, smoke purging system or smoke vents must be included in the CFD modelling. For the case of engineered smoke control / purging system, the following information shall be provided Ductwork layout (Deeper than 10% of floor height) Beams (Deeper than 10% of floor height) Extraction grilles Make-up air paths Heat/Smoke detectors (where applicable) Sprinkler heads (where applicable) Storage racks. FSE may assume a reasonable racking structure if the actual design is not known yet. The actual system design layout must also be included for comparison with the CFD model. For the case of smoke vents, the following information shall be provided : Smoke vents and replacement air vents (orientation and aerodynamic free area) Smoke detectors (where applicable) Sprinkler heads (where applicable) In the FER, the FSE is to include all relevant architectural plan & elevations for comparison with the CFD model. Smoke management systems
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29 FSE has to state the assumptions with respect to ramping up the operation of the smoke management system. As a general guide, the smoke management system is at 0% capacity at start of simulation. Upon its activation (to be based on smoke detectors/sprinklers depending on the system design), the system would reach full design capacity in less than 60s, as required in Clause 7.6.26 of the Fire Code. (xi) Fire detection system Fire and smoke detectors must be included in the CFD model if they are provided to the actual spaces. Fire detection system (xii) Fire suppression systems It shall be assumed that the fire is maintained at the design fire size and not mitigated by the suppression system in the modelling study. Fire Suppression Systems (c) Documenting the output Documentation (i) FSE to include output quantities for visibility, temperature and velocity. Additional output quantities e.g. carbon monoxide, heat flux, FED may be required depending on the scope of the performance-based design. (ii) In addition to slice files/snapshots, other output parameters such as radiometers, thermocouples, etc shall be included in the FER as the slice files may not capture all the relevant details.
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