ciations and other formal networks in Latvia from the perspective of sustainable tourism destination development. 2. Sustainability concept in tourism A traditional visualization of sustainable development dimensions isVenn dia- gram in which social, economic, and environmental factors overlap so as to producesystem that is sustainable in that it is socially bearable, economically equitable, and environmentally viable. In sustainable tourism concept it is not possible to separate the three mentioned sustainability aspects as mainly private enterprise tourism industry, this is the economic aspect, is tourist movement and interaction with local people that is the social aspect, in ecological environment in destination as the environment aspect. In addition to havingmulti-stakeholder process for articulating goals and aspirations in sustainability approach, there has to be e ff ective implementation of change on the ground [Logan 2015]. Multi- stakeholder in fl uences as well as economic, social and ecological aspect impact on sustainable development create additional complexity for communities in destination development and risk of some of stakeholder exclusion. Even though tourism is considered generally as unsustainable industry, tour- ists and tourism enterprises can play an active role to overcome the environmen-
The Importance of Sectoral and Regional Cooperation Network Coverage... 85 tal issues because global environmental issues and adverse e ff ect of these issues on nature has been increased. In addition, tourists and tourism enterprises need to be informed about natural surroundings. Th e concept of sustainability has been discussed for years and it is also adapted to tourism industry. Scientists have done considerable research about the issues of sustainability and evolution of sus- tainability in terms of tourism industry [Yuzbasıoglua, Topsakal & Celikc 2014], still us in many theories there is no universally accepted de fi nition of sustainable tourism destinations [Lee 2001]. According to World Tourism Organization [UNWTO 2005] sustainable tourism can be de fi ned as “tourism that takes full account of its future and current economic, environmental and social impacts, addressing the needs of the enterprises, visitors, local people and the environ- ment”. Figure 1 shows scopes of sustainable tourism de fi nitions. Sustainable tourism activities Tourism activities Sustainable development of destination Tourism destination Limited de fi nition Tourism destination Holistic de fi nition Figure 1. De fi nitions of sustainable tourism destination Source: Lee 2001: 315. Narrowed or limited de fi nition includes the management of all sources that are devoted to tourism. On the other hand, holistic de fi nition of sustainability has the potential to promotemore synergistic understanding of the social, envi- ronmental, economic and cultural indicators o ft ourism destination and how each of these factors lead tomore sustainable tourism destination [Lee 2001]. Th ere are four indicators for implementing tourism strategies based on sustainability.
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