: In 1941, Britain and Russia invaded Iran in response to WWII. Britain claimed the South, while Russia claimed the North. Prior to this invasion both countries had lost their stronghold in Iran to Germany.14.APOC: Anglo-Persian Oil was a British company founded in 1908 following the discovery of a large oil fieldin Iran. It was the first company to extract petroleumfrom Iran. In 1935 APOC was renamed the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) and in 1954 it became the British Petroleum Company (BP), one of the antecedents of the modern BPpublic limited company.15.D’Arcy Concession: The D'Arcy Concession was a petroleumoil concessionthat was signed in 1901 between William Knox D'Arcyand Mozzafar al-DinShah of Persia. Led to the formation of APOC in 1909, later known as British Petroleum, after D’Arcy experienced financial trouble. Concession shows the rentier economy that Iran had and the Qajar’s willingness to make deals with Europeans despite having low percentages of the profit.16.“Modernization from Above”:Early 1900s policy by Reza Shah that moved toward nationalism. Called for expansion of bureaucracy, strengthening and expansion of the military, education reform, promoting industry and domestic production, an increase in health services and social services. Attempted to help Shah maintain dictatorship by expanding liberties, weakening clerical influence, and limiting opposition.17.Reza Khan: Shah from 1925 to 1941 who led the Cossack Brigade in a coup. Elected monarch in 1925, founding the Pahlavi dynasty. His rule included the idea of “modernization from above” which sought to modernize Iran into a nation similar to those in the West. 18.Cossack Brigade: Military unit formed by Naser al-din Shah in 1879 headed by Russian authorities. Reza Shah led the Cossak Brigade in a coup of the capital in 1921, becoming the only functioning military to stage a coup. 19.Constantinople Agreement: Agreement between Britain and Russia in 1915 that allowedBritain to spread influence in Iran. Britian would be able to control neutral region, becoming a greater power. Agreement did not go through because of Russia. 20.Anglo-Russian Entrente: Signed on August 31, 1907 by Britain and Russia to separate Iran into three spheres. North/Central for Russia, Southeast for GB, and a neutral area.
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