B tests and initializes the following hardware

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b. Tests and initializes the following hardware devices one by one: Locates, sizes, and verifies system memory Verifies and initializes video card (output displayed on monitor) Identify available hard disks 3. After POST tests complete, the BIOS identifies other system devices. It uses CMOS settings and information supplied by the devices themselves to identify and configure hardware devices. Plug and
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play devices are allocated system resources. The system typically displays information about the keyboard, mouse, and SATA drives in the system. Following this summary, you will also see information about devices and system resources. 4. The BIOS then searches for a boot drive (using the boot order specified in the CMOS). During this sequence, system information is displayed on the screen and the option to enter the CMOS setup to configure system parameters is available. Boot loader During the boot loader stage, the following process occurs: 1. On the boot device, the BIOS searches for and loads the boot code in the master boot record (MBR). The MBR is located in the first sector on the disk. 2. The MBR boot code uses the partition table to identify the active disk partition. 3. On the active partition, it looks for and loads the bootmgr.exe program. 4. The bootmgr.exe program looks for the BCD store in either the C:\ directory or the System Reserved partition. The BCD store contains a list of all Windows installations on the disk. 5. If only one installation exists, bootmgr.exe automatically loads the OS. If multiple installations exist, a list of bootable operating systems is displayed. This stage occurs after the BIOS information screen disappears, but before the Windows loading screen is shown. OS startup During this stage, the operating system is started. The operating system configures system devices and loads necessary files. The following process occurs: 1. The operating system loader winload.exe is started. At this stage, advanced startup options can be access by pressing the F8 key (e.g., Safe Mode). 2. Winload.exe then loads the following: o System registry o Ntoskrnl.exe o Essential device drivers 3. Control of the system is passed to ntoskrnl.exe. 4. At this point, the Windows logo is displayed and ntoskrnl.exe: o Loads device drivers. o Starts services. o Configures the OS environment. Logon and user configuration After the operating system and devices are configured, the system waits for user logon. Following logon, the operating system is configured with user-specific settings. 1. The wininit and winlogon programs run to allow user logon. At this point, the Welcome or user logon screen is displayed. 2. Following logon, all remaining device drivers and user settings are loaded. In addition, the current configuration profile is copied to the Last Known Good Configuration registry.
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