(MRSA) should be treated with a glycopeptide such as vancomycin or an oxazolidinone antibiotic like linezolid, and in severe cases should be included with the empirical antimicrobial drug therapy (Adis Medical Writers, 2017). Treatment for pneumonia in children may not be required since the majority of the time the pathogen responsible is viral and observation on an outpatient basis is all that is needed
(Boyd, 2017). However, if antibiotic treatment is necessary, children fully immunized should be prescribed an aminopenicillin such as ampicillin or penicillin G (Boyd, 2017). A third- generation cephalosporin, for example ceftriaxone, should be added in infants or children who are not completely immunized (Boyd, 2017). A macrolide, such as azithromycin, is recommended with atypical organisms are suspected and like adults, treatment with vancomycin is required if MRSA is the culprit (Arcangelo et al., 2017; Boyd, 2017). Treatment for viral infections such as influenza consists of neuraminidase inhibitors like oseltamivir (Arcangelo et al., 2017). Impact of Age on Medications for Pneumonia When treating the elderly with antibiotics careful thought and consideration needs to be put into determining the regimen. Kidney function can be impaired in elderly patients, so assessing the glomerular filtration rate is important to avert acute kidney failure and serious adverse effects (Thiem, Heppner, & Pientka, 2011). Gastrointestinal side effects involving nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea are common when treating with B-lactams, macrolides, and fluoroquinolones and may impact the absorption of oral medications (Thiem et al., 2011). Fluoroquinolones can produce central nervous system adverse effects in the elderly that can stimulate or exacerbate confusion, somnolence, hallucinations, or dizziness (Thiem et al., 2011). Also, with macrolides and fluoroquinolones, arrhythmias secondary to prolongation of the QT interval can occur with patients taking concurrent antiarrhythmic medications (Thiem et al.,
2011). Certain antibiotics should not be given to children. Tetracyclines such as doxycycline can cause stains in developing teeth (Arcangelo et al., 2017). Measures to Reduce Side Effects Thorough patient education is required to address adverse side effects, length of therapy, and to reinforce the importance of taking the full course of antibiotics even when the patient starts feeling better (Arcangelo et al., 2017). The patient should be instructed to contact the provider if adverse side effects occur to see if the medication needs to be changed or the dose altered. Gastrointestinal side effects can be minimized if the medication, such as macrolides, is taken with food (Arcangelo et al., 2017). Patients taking fluoroquinolones should be instructed to avoid driving since it can cause dizziness and light-headedness (Arcangelo et al., 2017).
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 8 pages?
- Summer '15