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the social hierarchy, however it was much more common to move downward then up due to elitists fighting to keep the merchants in their “place”. (Political)State-Building, Expansion and Conflict The Ming Dynasty was overthrown by civil unrest in their borders as well as outside armies attacking. Once the land was finally claimed the “Qing Dynasty”, an emperor named Dorgon declared that all loyal men were to shave their heads except for a small ponytail on the back of their head. Those that refused were massacred. Dorgon also brought back Imperial Civil Service exams in order to staff the bureaucracy of the dynasty which were taken every three years. With each emperor came a new desire to expand the territory they resided in. The armies were valuable and were made strong toprotect the people and to fight for more and more land. The groups of people that they overtook were all expected to act as if they were Manchus people, men to shave their heads and women to follow the ways of the society. Several tactics