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Deterrenceis a call action that focuses on persuading audience not to start something if they haven’t alreadystarted. Perhaps many people in the audience have never tried illicit drugs, or have not gotten behind the wheel ofa car while intoxicated. The goal of action in this case would be to deter, or encourage the audience members torefrain from starting or initiating the behavior.Finally, withcontinuance, the speaker aims to persuade the audience to continue doing what they have been doing,such as reelect a candidate, keep buying product, or staying in school to get an education.A speaker may choose to address more than one of these goals of action, depending on the audience analysis.If the audience is largely agreeable and supportive, you may find continuance to be one goal, while adoption issecondary.These goals serve to guide you in the development of solution steps. Solution steps involve suggestions or waysthe audience can take action after your speech. They often proceed from national to personal level, or the inverse.Audience members appreciate a clear discussion of the problem in a persuasive speech, but they also appreciatesolutions. You might offer a national solution that may be viewed as unworkable, but your solution on a personallevel may be more realistic, such as considering an alternate point of view or making a small donation to a worthycause.Increase ConsiderationIncrease ConsiderationPerhaps you know that your audience is not open to emotional appeals that involve the fear of global warming,so you choose to base your persuasive speech on something they are more open to: the economic argumentand the relative cost of car ownership. In this speech, you want to increase consideration on the part of theaudience whose members either hold hostile views or perhaps are neutral and simply curious. You might be ableto compare and contrast competing cars and show that the costs over ten years are quite similar, but that the Priushas additional features that are the equivalent of a bonus, including high gas mileage. You might describe taxincentives for ownership, maintenance schedules and costs, and resale value. Your arguments and their supportaim at increasing the audience’s consideration of your position. You won’t be asking for action in this presentation,but a corresponding increase of consideration may lead the customer to that point at a later date.Develop Tolerance of Alternate PerspectivesDevelop Tolerance of Alternate PerspectivesFinally, you may want to help your audience develop tolerance of alternate perspectives and viewpoints. Perhapsyour audience, as in the previous example, is interested in purchasing a car and you are the lead salesperson onthat model. As you listen, and do your informal audience analysis, you may learn that horsepower and speed areimportant values to this customer. You might raise the issue of torque versus horsepower and indicate that the“uumph” you feel as you start a car off the line is torque. Many hybrid and even electric vehicles have great torque,
as their systems involve fewer parts and less friction than a corresponding internal combustion-transaxle system.