# Eighth notes 8 eighth notes can be divided into 16

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eighth notes; 8 eighth notes can be divided into 16 sixteenth notes; 16 sixteenth notes can be divided into 32 32ndnotes. (There are also 64th notes, but they are very rare.)The whole note is an unfilled note head without a stem. The half note is an unfilled note head with a stem. The quarter note is a filled note head with a stem. The eighth note is similar to the quarter note, but has the addition of a beam (or a flag, if the note is by itself). The sixteenth note has two beams (of flags), and the 32nd note has three beams (or flags).A succession of such note divisions would look and sound like thisThe addition of a dotafter a note adds one-half the note value to the note. So, for example, a dotted half notewould sound for a duration equal to a half note plus a quarter note, or three quarter notes; a dotted quarter notewould sound for a duration equal to aquarter note plus an eighth note, or one-and-a-half quarter notes; a dotted eight notewould sound for a duration equal to an eighth note plus a sixteenth note, or one-and-a-half eighth notes.
Dotted notesare very useful, but there are other ways to accomplish the same result, and sometimes we need another way. For example, if we wanted a note value equal to a dotted half note, starting in the middle of a measure, we could use a tieto join together a half note in the second half of one measure and a quarternote in the next measure, and that would sound exactly the same asa dotted half note. The notes tied together sound as one notefor the total durational value.Similarly, we could tiea quarter note and an eighth note, and the tiemakes them sound as one note, sounding for the same durationas a dotted quarter note.Because our rhythms are so metrically driven (that is, dependent on meter), smaller note values that are dotted tend to be used to create what we refer to as “dotted rhythms.”Dotted rhythmsinvolve pairs of notes that add up to a normal note value, say, for example, a quarter note. As we already know, aquarter note can be divided into two eighth notes. But a dotted rhythm can be created instead by dotting an eighth note and pairingit with a sixteenth note. The two notes still add up to a quarter note, but a distinctive “dotted rhythm” is created.Let’s listen to what these dotted notes and dotted rhythms sound like:Finally, let’s observe that music also includes silence, which we obtain by using restsOur notational system has a restfor every durational value. These rests include the half rest, which is equal in duration to a half note; the quarter rest, which is equal in duration to a quarter note; the eighth rest, which is equal in duration to an eighth note; etc. Let’s look and listen to what the use of rests sounds like:
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Duplemeter is heard as alternating strong and weak beats. 2/4 is the most common duple meter.Triplemeter is heard as strong-weak-weak. 3/4 is the most common triple meter.Quadruplemeter combines two duple groups, where there is a greater accent, or emphasis, on the first beat, and a slightly lesser