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Tumor that is local and the metastases predisposing

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tumor that is local and the metastases Predisposing factors: working with chemicals, smoking, infections, and analgesics Treatment: surgery, chemotherapy and/or photoradiation Nephrosclerosis Pathophysiology: Involves vascular changes in the kidney Thickening and hardening of the walls in the arterioles and arteries Narrowed blood vessel lumen leads to reduced blood to the kidneys, renin stimulation from HTN, and continued ischemia Can be a primary lesion that develops in the kidneys May be secondary to essential hypertension Treatment: antihypertensive agents such as diuretics and beta-blockers, and reduce sodium intake Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) Pathophysiology: retrograde flow of urine from the bladder into the ureters Reflux encourages infected urine from the bladder to be swept up into the kidneys Caused by a congenital abnormalility or ectopic insertation of the ureter into the bladder Signs & Symptoms: frequent infections during childhood Diagnosis: Voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) and intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
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Treatment: observe and surgery if sever or recurrent infection Congenital Disorders Vesicoureteral Reflux: is due to a defective valve in the bladder under infection Agenesis: refers to developmental failure of one kidney to develop Hypoplasia: failure to develop normal size Ectopic kidney: means that the kidney and its ureter are displaced out of normal position “Horseshoe” Kidney: fusion of the two kidneys Adult Polycystic Kidney Autosomal dominant genetic disorder No indication in children and young adults The first manifestations are usually around age 40 Multiple cysts develop in both of the kidneys that lead to enlargement of the kidneys, compression and destruction of the kidney tissues, and chronic renal failure Diagnosis: done by abdominal CT scan or MRI Wilms Tumor Rare childhood tumor of the kidneys (usually age 2-5) Genetic that may occur with other congenital disorders Signs and symptoms Firm, smooth, mass in the abdomen Abdominal pain, hematuria, hypertension, constipation, nausea and vomiting, or fever Pulmonary metastases may be present at diagnosis Treatment: depends on the stage, surgery and chemotherapy are used Acute Renal Failure Pathophysiology: acute bilateral kidney diseases Pre-renal severe: prolonged circulatory shock or heart failure Intrarena l: nephrotoxins such as drugs, chemicals, or toxins Post-renal: obstruction that leads to calculi, blood clots, and tumors Signs & symptoms: acute onset, oliguria, and edema Diagnosis: Elevated BUN, creatine, hyperkalemia, and metabolic acidosis Treatment Recognize and treat at risk individuals Identify and remove or treat primary problem Dialysis to correct to body fluid problems Chronic Renal Failure Gradual irreversible destruction of the kidneys over a long period of time Asymptomatic in the early stages May result from: chronic kidney diseases or polycystic kidney, and systemic disorders or
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