Number of items that can be stored in each type

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Number of items that can be stored in each type (capacity) o Strategies for increasing STM storage - chunking - rehearsal (specifically, maintenance rehearsal) o Working memory - definition, what is it used for? o LTM - sub-divisions, different types - organization of information in LTM o Explicit vs implicit memory - How to measure explicit memory o Recall vs recognition o Serial-position effect - Ways to measure implicit memory o priming o relearning o word-completion task o picture-fragment task o The biological basis of memory o What are the changes underlying STM and LTM? - STM: changes in neurotransmitter production and release, - LTM: structural changes to cells including new receptor sites as well as expansion of dendrites, spines, and axon branching o Studies with Aplysia (sea slug) showing that habituation (a simple
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type of STM) is caused by changes in neurotransmitter release from sensory neurons Gill withdrawal reflex: When siphon touched, gill reflexively withdraws. Over time, Aplysia stops responding to stimulation – i.e., ‘learning’ occurs... o Long-term potentiation (LTP) - how it occurs - simultaneous activation of cells - structural changes o Memory consolidation – takes time for neural changes; subject to disruption; sleep important o Various brain structures involved in memory (including their specialization for particular types of memory) – see Review 10.1 on p. 367. o Hormones that can enhance memory for emotionally charged events - epinephrine and norepinephrine - their effects on glucose, and how glucose relates to memory (graph below given in class as example) -
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o Mnemonic devices - Definition - Types discussed: Key word (or peg word) method, method of loci o Strategies for more effective encoding: e.g., elaboration (elaborative rehearsal) - Allocation of attention, retrieval practice, etc. - Dual coding theory - Levels of processing theory - shallow vs deep encoding and effects on recall o Craik and Lockhart study (1972) Subjects given long lists of words to make judgments about: dolphin phone noise hammer cake Three groups made different judgments: Gp 1: Structural (shallow): Physical structure of word Asked: How many letters are there? Gp. 2: Phonemic (intermediate): Sound of word Asked: Does the word rhyme with toys? Gp. 3: Semantic (deep): Meaning of word Asked: Does the word fit in the sentence etc.“The man ate the ___”? Results: The deeper the encoding, the more words were remembered.
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