Lecture 25— Addiction (Neurobiology).pdf

2 there is a persistent desire or unsuccessful effort

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Often taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended. 2. There is a persistent desire or unsuccessful effort to cut down or control use. 3. A great deal of time is spent in activities necessary to obtain/use/recover. 4. Craving, or a strong desire or urge to use. B. Social impairment 5. Recurrent use resulting in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home. 6. Continued use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of its use. 7. Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced. C. Risky Use 8. Recurrent use in situations in which it is physically hazardous. 9. Use is continued despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical/psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by the substance. D. Pharmacological indicators: Tolerance and Withdrawal 10. & 11. 2 symptoms 1 year
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DSM-5 criteria (abbreviated) 20 D. Pharmacological indicators: Tolerance and Withdrawal 10. Tolerance: a. Need for markedly increased amount of substance to achieve intoxication or desired effect. b. Markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of substance. 11. Withdrawal: a. The characteristic withdrawal syndrome for that substance (as specified in the DSM- 5 for each substance). b. The substance (or a closely related one) is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms. 2 symptoms 1 year
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Reinforcement Punishment Positive contingency Drug Sickness, fights… Negative contingency Relief from… Loss of work/spouse Effect on rate of behavior More Less Why do people take drugs? 22 Addiction
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Why do people take drugs? 25 Cooper 1994, Kuntsche & Kuntsche 2009 Coping Enhancement Social Conformity (internal) (external) (internal) (external) Motives Source of effects Approach Drug Avoidance Relief from… CORRECTED SLIDE The previous slide listed wrong internal/external sources of effects
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