Pastoralism: Rely on herding animals (Goats, sheep, horses, camels, cattle). Mobile, either seasonal or normadically. Can accumulate more possessions. Trade with settled people. Value strength and courage in men because of the obstacles they may face when traveling. Value cooperation/extended families. Intensive agriculture: Use some combination of draft animals, plows, machinery or irrigation system. People are sedentary, population can grow large into towns and cities. Cultural value on wealth and possessions, state level societies- create armies. Occupational specialization and social stratification. (ex: Aztec empire, ancient Egypt, rome, china, Mesopotamia) Other terms and concepts: o Holistic perspective: Means that you can not understand human beings without understanding the full range of the human phenomenon. This is why there are different subsets of anthropology: cultural, physical, linguistics and archaeological. o ethnography: The scientific description of the customs of individual peoples and cultures o ethnocentrism: Evaluation of other cultures according to preconceptions originating in the standards and customs of one's own culture. “Ours is normal and Right” o cultural relativism: The idea that a person's beliefs, values, and practices should be understood based on that person's own culture, rather than be judged against the criteria of another. o carrying capacity: The number of people, other living organisms, or crops that a region can support without environmental degradation. o swidden / shifting/ slash & burn cultivation: involves felling trees and vegetation on a plot of land, leaving them to dry, and then setting fire to them. The resulting layer of ash provides the newly cleared land with a nutrient-rich layer to help fertilize crops. o egalitarianism: The doctrine that all people are equal and deserve equal rights and opportunities. o endogamy: The custom of marrying only within the limits of a local community, clan, or tribe. o exogamy: The custom of marrying outside a community, clan, or tribe. Be sure to learn the “Anthropology Terms and Concepts” from the separate handout Question type: objective
II. The Culture Sketch Chapters in general [Yanomamo, Ojibwa] and Arctic lecture/film materials. Have a mental culture sketch about the culture groups in the chapters. The points listed below are pretty general—they are things you should take away from most of the text chapters you read in this course. However, you will also notice that in addition to general “sketches” each chapter also focuses on particular information relevant to that culture group. For example, elderly people may be mentioned in one chapter but not another; or kinship structure may be highlighted in one but not another.What is the physical environment and subsistence method? What foods are utilized?What is the political organization? Are there rituals involved? Is kinship important inthe political structure?What are men’s and women’s roles in these societies? The view of the elderly?What are the beliefs related to the supernatural?
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- Spring '16