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CHAPTER 10 – THE DECLINE OF THE REPUBLIC AND THE FOUNDING OF THE PRINCIPATERome is most powerful state in the Mediterranean worldEmpire from Spain to AnatoliaCity-state government not equipped to handle large empireFrom One Crisis to the Next (149 – 88 BCE)Problems in administration and military recruitmentProvincial AdministrationProvinces from Spain to Asia governed by proconsulsProconsuls can issue laws and form armies stationed in their provincesShort term, small staff for finances and delegationProvinces divided further into cities with more administrative powerLittle to no interaction with Roman governmentTaxes had problems – farmers were taxed 1/10 of their cropHired tax collectors extorted as much money as possibleTiberius Gracchus and the Agricultural-Military CrisisSimilar to Assyria, the soldiers were farmers, and when fighting away from home, there was little to no agricultural productionAgricultural-military crisisTiberius Gracchus – tribune of the plebs, tried to pass legislation for leasing land, murderedWhat to Do with the Italian Allies2/3 of Roman army was made up of allies, not romansItalians demand Roman citizenship, but romans fear they will have too much influenceGaius Gracchus and the Expansion of Popular TacticsYounger brother of Tiberius – tribune of the Plebs 123 BCEWorked on land distribution, tried to found a colony near CarthageExiled to AsiaElected tribune again and tried to revive Italian citizenship, ousted by DrususMarius and the Volunteer ArmyCelts: Cimbria and Tuetones’ homes were flooded and arrived in southern Gaul looking for a new homeDefeat consul Carbo at Battle of Noreia near DanubeRequest land for military service, refused by RomeDefeat Romans near Bordeaux in 107 BCEGaius Marius, knight from southern Latium elected consul in 107 BCE. Assigned to AfricaCreates volunteer army – paid by generals – more loyalty to generals than the stateThe Revolt of the Italian AlliesItalians expelled from Rome, establish own country called ItaliaCapital Corfinium100,000 soldiersJulius Caesar gives all Italians not revolting Roman citizenshipAn Age of Generals (88 – 60 BCE)3 problems – administration, army, senators not getting alongThe Regnum SullanumMithridates VI – descendant of Darius I
Invaded parts of Roman empire, murdered 80,000 romans in one dayLucius Cornelius Sulla commands war against Mithridates VINow all senators that want influence need armiesCrassus and the Revolt of SpartacusIncrease in slave population of Italy and Sicily – work them to death and buy new onesSlave army led by SpartacusDecimation – every 10thman in a disgraced army unit executed to set exampleThe Rise of PompeyGnaeus Pompey – ambitious senatorFought against pirates on the Mediterranean from Gibraltar to the Levant