Chapter 10 the decline of the republic and the

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CHAPTER 10 – THE DECLINE OF THE REPUBLIC AND THE FOUNDING OF THE PRINCIPATE Rome is most powerful state in the Mediterranean world Empire from Spain to Anatolia City-state government not equipped to handle large empire From One Crisis to the Next (149 – 88 BCE) Problems in administration and military recruitment Provincial Administration Provinces from Spain to Asia governed by proconsuls Proconsuls can issue laws and form armies stationed in their provinces Short term, small staff for finances and delegation Provinces divided further into cities with more administrative power Little to no interaction with Roman government Taxes had problems – farmers were taxed 1/10 of their crop Hired tax collectors extorted as much money as possible Tiberius Gracchus and the Agricultural-Military Crisis Similar to Assyria, the soldiers were farmers, and when fighting away from home, there was little to no agricultural production Agricultural-military crisis Tiberius Gracchus – tribune of the plebs, tried to pass legislation for leasing land, murdered What to Do with the Italian Allies 2/3 of Roman army was made up of allies, not romans Italians demand Roman citizenship, but romans fear they will have too much influence Gaius Gracchus and the Expansion of Popular Tactics Younger brother of Tiberius – tribune of the Plebs 123 BCE Worked on land distribution, tried to found a colony near Carthage Exiled to Asia Elected tribune again and tried to revive Italian citizenship, ousted by Drusus Marius and the Volunteer Army Celts: Cimbria and Tuetones’ homes were flooded and arrived in southern Gaul looking for a new home Defeat consul Carbo at Battle of Noreia near Danube Request land for military service, refused by Rome Defeat Romans near Bordeaux in 107 BCE Gaius Marius, knight from southern Latium elected consul in 107 BCE. Assigned to Africa Creates volunteer army – paid by generals – more loyalty to generals than the state The Revolt of the Italian Allies Italians expelled from Rome, establish own country called Italia Capital Corfinium 100,000 soldiers Julius Caesar gives all Italians not revolting Roman citizenship An Age of Generals (88 – 60 BCE) 3 problems – administration, army, senators not getting along The Regnum Sullanum Mithridates VI – descendant of Darius I
Invaded parts of Roman empire, murdered 80,000 romans in one day Lucius Cornelius Sulla commands war against Mithridates VI Now all senators that want influence need armies Crassus and the Revolt of Spartacus Increase in slave population of Italy and Sicily – work them to death and buy new ones Slave army led by Spartacus Decimation – every 10 th man in a disgraced army unit executed to set example The Rise of Pompey Gnaeus Pompey – ambitious senator Fought against pirates on the Mediterranean from Gibraltar to the Levant

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