As with all components of an industrial process chemical reactors as designed

As with all components of an industrial process

This preview shows page 5 - 7 out of 27 pages.

compounds). As with all components of an industrial process, chemical reactors as designed to produce the maximum amount of product in the shortest amount of time, which can safely be achieved. To determine the proportions necessary for cost effective design, a key value to be known is the reaction rate constant. The reaction rate constant relates the rate of product formation (or reactant consumption) to the concentrations of the reactions reactant species. This reaction rate clarifies the residence time of the reaction, the time which required for a particular concentration of products to be formed, and thus is of great importance to industrial reactor designers. The experiment outlined involves the operation of a plug flow reactor (PFR), a type of continuous flow chemical reactor, to synthesise ethanol and sodium acetate from Ethyl acetate and sodium hydroxide, a process known as saponification (Farmer, 2019). By obtaining information on the concentrations of the reactants into the PFR through titrations at various flowrates, the reaction rate of the reaction can be determined by performing mole balances around the PFR to determine the reactant conversion. This report details the method, calculations, and discussion of the given experiment in the standard format of theoretical background, experimental procedure, results and discussion, and final conclusions and recommendations. 1
Image of page 5

Subscribe to view the full document.

2. Theoretical A chemical reaction is a process that results in the transformation of chemical substances. They can be classified per the reaction conditions; the number and type of phases involved, particularly whether it is a homogeneous and heterogeneous system; and whether they are catalytic (Perry, 1997). Chemical reactors are vessels designed to contain chemical reactions under controlled conditions to produce specific products. All industrial chemical processes are designed to produce an economical product from a variety of raw materials. The materials are treated before they are transformed in a chemical reactor. Thus, the application of chemical reactors is the heart of many chemical processes. Reactors are designed based on the synthesis of chemical kinetics, fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer, thermodynamics and costs (Levenspiel, 1999). They can be classified into two main categories: batch or continuous reactors. Moreover, there are four main kinetic models for chemical reactors: batch reactors, continuous stirred tank reactors, packed bed reactors and plug flow reactors. 2.1 Saponification Saponification is a chemical reaction that has been used for centuries as a means of making soap. The hydrolysis of esters under alkaline conditions to form a salt and an alcohol is referred to as saponification (Farmer, 2019). Therefore, the hydrolysis of ethyl acetate with sodium hydroxide to produce sodium acetate and ethanol is a saponification reaction.
Image of page 6
Image of page 7
  • One '14

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Ask Expert Tutors You can ask bonus questions You can ask questions ( expire soon) You can ask questions (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes