In nonunionized workplaces, the formal procedures such as the step-review and peer-review systems to handle employees’ grievances are collectively known as alternative dispute resolution. In unionized workplaces, the grievance procedure is normally included in the labor agreements. Employers in nonunionized workplaces have introduced alternate dispute resolution (ADR) to discourage unionization and to reduce the chances of being taken to court for discrimination or wrongful dismissal claims. Increased domestic and global competition as well as technological advancements has resulted in union membership declining . Globalization has meant that a sizeable portion of blue-collar workers are being made redundant in favor of hiring cheaper foreign workers abroad. Rapid technological progress has also meant that blue-collar workers are in less demand as jobs become more computerized and automated, requiring less input from humans. International Human Resource Management To meet the challenges of global competition, companies can become an international corporation with leveraged capabilities in foreign markets, or a multinational organization with independent units in other countries to deal with local issues, or a global corporation with international offices controlled from the local headquarters, or a fully transnational organization with a network managing both local and global operations. A transnational organization successfully manages both local and global concerns in an integrated plan that offers them the most flexibility. The areas of focus for HRM on the international platform are relocation, orientation and translation. There will normally be language differences and barriers that need to be sensitively handled, and getting this right is critical in ensuring a successful operation in a foreign country where English is not the main language for business. When it comes to international staffing , HRM can select expatriates, host-country nationals, and third country nationals. Expatriates, or home-country nationals, are employees from the home country posted on international job assignments. Host-country nationals are nationals from the host country and third country nationals are nationals not from the host or home country. For example, if Coca-Cola starts an office in South Africa, then American employees working at that office would be expatriates, South Africans would be host-country nationals, and employees from any other country would be considered third-country nationals. At the early phases of internationalization, companies tend to rely on expatriates but later on there is usually a constant trend towards hiring host-country nationals. The reasons for this are cost. Locals are cheaper to hire because there is no need to pay for moving costs, transportation etc. No cultural adjustments are required of locals. Local governments usually prefer that companies hire locals and some may require it.