Manin takes england us and france and examines how

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Manin takes (England, Us and France) and examines how the distinction principle was implemented oTo convince us that we do live in regimes which our representatives are to be greater than us oShows us in detail how it is implemented within these 3 cases Ch. 3 the first revolution opens up election oVotes ǁeƌe ofteŶ uŶaŶiŵous / ǀotes ǁeƌeŶ’t ĐouŶtedoFor a period of time after the revolution, elections were more contested (more competition between rivals in the election) oAlthough does not widen the variety of people running imposes religious and politic elites More issues to fight over vs. more people to fight oBefore 1640 elections were not contested oAfter 1640 more competition however common people were not running The first English revolutions, diversity within candidates did not appear mid 18thcentury England will return to a situation where elections are less and less contested oManin tells us two cultural factors can explain why: o1. Cultural climate in England, social rank/prestige were culturally influenced lead to widespread belief that the most prominent of people should naturally participate in public office ͞defeƌeŶĐe͟ –tendency/ disposition to give in to the will of others especially who enjoy social standing and prestige communicating differently with people of different social ranks importance of hierarchy in England is a distinctive trait of English political life and culture under those conditions; we can understand why there is no competition during elections o2. Cost of engaging in electoral process (economic) has not changed since then distaŶĐe/tƌaǀel ŵake eleĐtioŶeeƌiŶg a ͞ƌiĐh ŵaŶ’s puƌsuit͟ ;MaŶiŶ, p. 97Ϳ1710 property requirements become part of qualifications to be a member of parliament requirements are high and favour the presence of landed and moneyed interests moneyed interests = bourgeoisie (finance and commerce) existence of property requirements is an echo of the positions articulated by the grandees (leaders of new model army) argue that property requirements are essential in political life find more resources at oneclass.comfind more resources at oneclass.com
vs. levers who believe in consent oboth discourage diverse pool of individuals from running France: Principle of distinction implemented in two different ways o1. Two categories of citizens constitutional monarchy decided that France would have two categories of citizens active citizens vs. passive citizens active: be able to pay equivalent of 3 days-worth of wages through tax those ǁho ĐouldŶ’t paLJ = passive citizens passive citizens were also under the influence of others (ex. A child, women, servant, general poor, homeless) restrictive in fact; this distinction of active vs passive citizen gave the right to participation to more people progressive conception of citizenship

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