Is this sample generalizable to the population? Slide 19: Validity/ reliability - Validity – precision in measuring exactly what one intends to measure o Does an instrument actually measure what it sets out to measure? – does this properly represent the concept I’m trying to measure o E.g. If I want to measure intelligence and look at income, this would indicate poor validity. - Reliability – consistency in measurement results. o The procedure must yield the same result if repeated o Eg. People are pretty accurate about what their income is, but a problem with reliability is that individuals often won’t disclose what their income is. o Eg; What class are you = middle class Slide 20: Conclusion - Does the study support your hypothesis? - Does it suggest that something else is the causal effect? - Discuss the implications of your research, future avenues of research, etc Slide 21: Methods - Quantitative Methods : focus on social variables that can be counted or measured, ie. statistics - Qualitative Methods : involves the close examination of characteristics that cannot be counted or measured directly - Quant typically used to find patterns governing whole structures/ system, communities, etc (MACRO) - Qual used to study individual cases that you couldn’t see w/in bigger structure • Mixed Methods : combining the above 2 Slide 22: Theory - A theory is a set of logically interrelated statements that attempts to describe, explain or occasionally predict social event - The theory and research cycle consists of either deductive or inductive approaches - Deductive approach : the researcher begins with a theory and uses research to test the theory o It proceeds as follows – Theory generates an hypothesis o Hypothesis leads to observations (data gathering) o Observations lead to formation of generalizations o Generalizations are used to modify or support a theory.
- Inductive approach , the researcher collects the information or the data (evidence), and then the analysis of the data suggest generalizations and these produce a tentative theory. o Theory is tested through the formation of Ho o Ho may provide suggestions for additional observations Slide 23: Quant methods - Quantitative methods in sociology rely on measuring information about the social world with numbers o Generally employ a deductive approach o Examines the social world primarily at a macro level o Statistics are the main tools of quantitative methods - Operational definition : when abstract concepts are transformed into measured, concrete, observable variables o Ie . Poverty line, absolute poverty, relative poverty o
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- Spring '05
- Sociology, researcher, social world