Gram positive bacteria have thick peptidoglycan cell

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Gram-positive bacteria have thick peptidoglycan cell walls containing teichoic acid Gram-negative bacteria have a two-dimensional peptidoglycan layer and no teichoic acid
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Gram Positive The gram-positive cell wall has an outer peptidoglycan layer directly on top of a cell membrane (NO SPACE)
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Gram Negative The gram-negative cell wall has an outer membrane, separated from the cell membrane by the periplasmic space
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Porins The outer membrane contains proteins Selectively allow small molecules into the periplasmic space Gram negative
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Archea Cell Walls Provide mechanical strength Key differences No peptidoglycan Some contain Pseudopeptidoglycan Polysaccharides, proteins make up cell wall S-layer Most common archeal cell wall Protein + glycoprotein Crystal lattice
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Which type of bacteria is pictured to the right? A. Gram + B. Gram -
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Cell Membranes Phospholipid alignment prevents movement in and out without direct regulation amphipathic molecules (hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions)
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Glyco- protein Carbohydrate Glycolipid Microfilaments of cytoskeleton EXTRACELLULAR SIDE OF MEMBRANE CYTOPLASMIC SIDE OF MEMBRANE Integral protein Peripheral proteins Cholesterol Fibers of extra- cellular matrix (ECM)
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Fluid Unsaturated hydrocarbon tails Viscous Saturated hydrocarbon tails (a) Unsaturated versus saturated hydrocarbon tails (b) Cholesterol within the animal cell membrane Cholesterol Fluid Mosaic Model
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Fluid Unsaturated hydrocarbon tails Viscous Saturated hydrocarbon tails (a) Unsaturated versus saturated hydrocarbon tails (b) Cholesterol within the animal cell membrane Cholesterol Fluid Mosaic Model
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Membrane Functions Molecules imbedded in the phospholipid membrane each have a specific function Proteins, Carbohydrates, Steroids
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Membrane Functions Microbial Functions Cell wall synthesis Energy metabolism DNA replication Sensation of stimuli Molecule transport
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Membrane Transport Three ways to get solutes or “stuff” into the cell Passive Transport Active Transport Endocytosis
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Passive Transport: Osmosis Isotonic Balanced concentrations Balanced water movement Flacid (no movement) Hypotonic Low concentration around cell/organelle Water cells : turgid Cell explosion Hypertonic High concentration around cell/organelle Water cells Cells shrivel (plasmolysis )
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Solutes Pseudopodium “Food” or other particle Food vacuole CYTOPLASM Plasma membrane Vesicle Receptor Ligand Coat proteins Coated pit Coated vesicle EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Phagocytosis Pinocytosis Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis
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Archeal Differences Hydrophobic lipid tails are attached to glycerol differently in archaea Fatty acids are usually absent Adjacent lipid tails are bound together forming a lipid monolayer, instead of a bilayer
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The Prokaryote Cell Understanding cellular differences between the prokaryotes can help determine species
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Cell Internal Structures Nucleoid central subcompartment in the cytoplasm where DNA aggregates DNA is a closed loop Haploid One copy of each gene
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  • Fall '16
  • Liz Johnson
  • Bacteria, Prokaryote Cell

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