notes_MGMT101_summary of the book

Subgroups form this is a time of testing and can be

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Storming – individual personalities and conflicts arise. Subgroups form, this is a time of testing and can be lengthy, leaders should encourage discussion and discourse g.iii. Norming – conflicts are resolved, close relationships develop, unity emerges. This is when a group evolves into a team. Leader should emphasize unity and team goals and values g.iv. Performing – members solve problems. Leader should allow member empowerment g.v. Adjourning – members prepare for disbandment. Leaders can emphasize the new beginnings, and lessons learned h. Changes can be reactive (as a result of environment change) or proactive (started w/I the organization) i. How to turn a group into a team: i.i. Performance goals and feedback – give them goals i.ii. Motivation through accountability – members must be accountable to each other i.iii. Size – i.iii.1. Small (2-9) i.iii.1.a. Adv: better interaction, morale i.iii.1.b. Disad: fewer resources, possibly less innovation, unfair work distribution i.iii.2. Large (10-16) i.iii.2.a. Adv: more resources, division of labor i.iii.2.b. Disad: less interaction, lower morale (less able to see worth of individual contributions), social loafing i.iv. Roles – socially determined expectation of how an individual should behave in a position i.iv.1. Task roles – getting team’s tasks done i.iv.2. Maintenance role – keeping team processes up i.v. Norms – general guidelines for behavior. They are enforced bc i.v.1. Helps teams survive i.v.2. Clarify role expectations i.v.3. Help individuals avoid embarrassing situations i.v.4. Emphasize the group’s important values and identity i.vi. Cohesiveness – tendency of group to stick together (TABLE 477) i.vii. Groupthink (negative thing) – people may be unwilling to provide alternative ideas. Symptoms include: i.vii.1. Invulnerability – members built a mindset of excessive optimism i.vii.2. Rationalization – people wont speak out
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i.vii.3. Illusion of unanimity – silence is interpreted as consent i.vii.4. Groupthink v wisdom of crowds i.viii. Results of groupthink include – i.viii.1. Reduction in alternative ideas i.viii.2. Limiting other info – other opinions are rejected i.ix. Preventing groupthink - i.ix.1. Allow criticism – i.ix.2. Allow other perspectives i.x. Conflict – when a party perceives that its interests are being opposed i.x.1. Negative conflict – hinders organizational performance i.x.2. Constructive (functional, cooperative conflict – benefits and serves organizational purposes i.x.3. Medium amount of conflict is best. Too little (indolence) leads to apathy, lack of creativity, etc. Too much (warfare) leads to political infighting, lack of teamwork, turnover, etc. i.xi. Seven causes of conflict i.xi.1. When two parties need the same thing i.xi.2. Time pressure i.xi.3. Inconsistent goals or rewards i.xi.4. Ambiguous jurisdiction i.xi.5. Status differences i.xi.6. Personality clashes i.xi.7. Communication failures i.xii. How to stimulate constructive conflict i.xii.1. Spur competition among employees i.xii.2. Change organizational culture and procedures (to being more innovative) i.xii.3. Bring in outsiders for new perspectives – i.xii.4.
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