•The respondent is expected to transfer personal attitudes to the third person.•Role playing requires the subject to act out someone else’s behaviour in a particular setting.36Expressive Techniques
Lecture 41337Example: which movie to rent?•Pros– Mask the real purpose of the study– Good in addressing personal, sensitive issues– Capturing what is going on at subconscious level Projective Techniques: Pros and Cons38•Cons–Requires highly skilled interviewers–Skilled interpreters are also required to analyze the responses–Serious risk of interpretation bias– Tend to be expensive– Engaging in unusual behavior.A warning about qualitative research•Cannot take the place of conclusive, quantitative research•Can lead to incorrect decisions•Interpretation of findings typically judgemental•Most techniques use small samples that may not be representative.39
Lecture 414Descriptive Research Methods40Types of Research41ResearchExploratoryDescriptiveCausalSurveyObservationSurvey Research42
Lecture 415Survey Research•Rationale: To enable the quantificationof opinions, preferences by a medium/large sample •Format: scaled questions, scenarios, open-ended questions •Timeframe: On-going (panel) versus one-shot (cross-sectional) •Tools: mail, telephone, personal interview, mall intercept, email/Internet43Survey MethodsTelephonePersonalElectronicTraditionalTelephoneComputer-AssistedTelephoneInterviewingMall InterceptIn-HomeE-MailInternetComputer-AssistedPersonal InterviewingMailMail PanelMail/FaxInterviewClassification of Survey MethodsTelephone Interviews•Traditional Telephone Interviewing– paper questionnaire, pen or pencil– centrally located research facilities•Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI)– computerized questionnaire– interviewer wears a mini-headset in front of computer– respondent's answers recorded directly into computer– CATI software has built-in logic, which also enhances data accuracy45
Lecture 416Personal Interviews•Personal In-Home Interviews– suitable for longest complex questionnaires– use of personal in-home interviews has declined– difficult to undertake mid-week•Mall-Intercept Personal Interviews– short interviews, limited privacy– non-probability samples, usually quota•Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI)– computer terminals – Shopping mall, airports, B2B trade shows and conventions 46Mail Surveys•Mail Surveys– mail interview package: outgoing envelope, cover letter, questionnaire, postage-paid return envelope, and possibly an incentive–few, if any, skip questions– slow, but cheap– follow-up required to minimize non-response•Mail Panels– large and nationally representative sample– detailed demographic and lifestyle data are collected on each household– Incentives: cash or gifts47Electronic Surveys•E-Mail Surveys– suited to projects where the email lists are readily available, (e.g., frequent fliers of an airline)– respondent anonymity is difficult to maintain •Internet Surveys– web survey systems are available for constructing
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