Penny whistle, guitar, often accompanied by voiceRarely piano- not very portableoMbaqanga: jazz-like genre, continuation of marabi and developing jazzDuring apartheid, jazz performed across racesBecame risky for jazz performers to perform because they played w/ different ethnic groups, often fled or were kicked outAlso developed in townships, particularly CapetownGhoema: style of Indian/Polynesian music brought to Africa, which influenced jazz sound1963: Abdullah Ibrahim & Sathima Bea Benjamin: convinced Duke Ellington to record with themJazz became known as this genre, mbaqanga became known as recorded music (typically Zulu)Matahotella QueensoMaskandi: came out of Black migrant laborersAlso ‘maskanda’Imitated off style of women’s music **bowing** with vocal and guitar music1970s: Punk RockoBecame big way for musicians across races to speak out against apartheidoAfrikaans folk music genre had been circulatingDutch descended lullabies brought to S. Africa, incorporating little African talesVoelry- these Dutch folk songs being used1980s: Voelry movement (free as a bird)Johannes KerkorrelMusic changed: before lyrics talked negatively about non-”Afrikaans”, now changed to speak against apartheidoAlso influence of reggae music Bob Marley came to Zimbabwe in 1985~Performed concert that was sold out, records distributedSteel band music from Trinidad & Tobago became popular
Andy Narell: steel drum player who became popular in S. AfricaLargely spread through records, recordingsLucky Dube: South African artist who originally played mbaqanga, talked w/ Peter Tosh, who recommended he try reggaeBecame famous for talking abt South African politics in the songsoBubblegum music: developed in 1980sUsed synthesizers, call and response and overlapping vocals to create new soundDominated South African musicDan/Den Tanza: one of first bubblegum performers (early ‘80s)Brenda Fasi**: bubblegum performer in late 90sStructure of music almost the samePop verse and chorusMusic similarVocals changed: changed through creative people working tonal African languages into melodyApartheid: white minority ruled over Black majorityoAlso big Indian and Asian populationsListening sampleso1: *shebeen*Influenced by vaudevillePerformed by Griffitho2: punk rock1976o3: ***o4: ***1990s- PresentoKwaito: first genre known as blend between bubblegum and American house musicKwaito came to be associated w/ certain dress, style, acting, coming from certain townshipsNow more popularAt first w/ Kwaito, man in center women dancing around himoChanging: more women being centerClapping rhythm found in kwaito: 3-2 pattern
oOne two three- one-twoSpoken singing voiceoHouse music: continuation of KwaitoSome artists go back and forth between the two genresoUnati: does both house and kwaitooHip-Hop: Prophets of Da City: one of first South
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