David Walker, Charles Sumner, Edmonia Lewis, Henry Highland Garnet, Harriet Beecher Stowe, James Forten, Maria Stewart, Toussaint L’Ouverture, Phillis Wheatley, Richard Allen, James G. Birney, Benjamin Banneker, Henry Clay, Charles Deslondes, Sally Hemings
Essay (30 points—10 points for each component): Answer the following 3 part question. Make an argument and use examples from the text. There is no length requirement, but it is not possible to satisfactorily answer the question in less than 1 page. Above all, address and provide examples for all components of the question. 21. What caused slavery in the United States to expand between 1820 and 1860 even as the institution was declining throughout the Atlantic World? What factors caused slavery to expand and become more politically entrenched during the antebellum period leading up to the Civil War? If slavery was protected by U.S. law, then why did eleven southern states secede from the Union in 1860-61? The rise and fall of the North American plantation complex was inseparable from larger imperial rivalries in the Atlantic world. Beginning in the 1660s, England, France, the Netherlands, and Portugal systematically devoted state resources to establishing plantation societies that used slave labor to produce cash crops. From the 1660s through the 1760s, plantation slavery on the North American continent centered on the southern coastal colonies of British North America, which were marginal to the larger Atlantic plantation complex centered on the Caribbean. In the broader Americas, slavery began its greatest period of growth in the half-century following the Seven Years’ War. Growing demand for sugar, coffee, tobacco, and cotton produced a broad, hemispheric trend that saw more slaves, producing more cash crops, in places that were marginal to the 18th-century Atlantic plantation complex. The United States— dominated politically by slaveholders—emerged as one of several imperial powers competing for supremacy over the peoples and places of the North American continent. In the roughly fifty years between the 1760s and the 1810s, slavery expanded tremendously on the North American continent. In North America, slaveholders and would-be planters used state power to expand plantation operations into the trans-Appalachian West, the southern interior, and the Lower Mississippi Valley. By the 1820s, the United States had emerged as the preeminent imperial power on the North American continent. Between 1820 and 1860, US slaveholders used state
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