Maori Frederick Henry 2004 which is detrimental for successful businesses Honig

Maori frederick henry 2004 which is detrimental for

This preview shows page 69 - 72 out of 241 pages.

Maori (Frederick & Henry, 2004), which is detrimental for successful businesses (Honig, 1998). Opposition from within the community to succeed in business perpetuates their passivity and therefore little future planning is emphasised (Boswell, Brown, Maniopoto, & Kruger, 1994; De Bruin & Mataira, 2003). These factors point to them having a low uncertainty avoidance trait.
Image of page 69
56 The Pacific cultures are traditionally high in UA due to the many rituals determining how one should behave socially and hierarchically (Lucas, 2009). However, in relation to work uncertainty, Lucas (2009) concludes that “Tongans are not concerned or do not have the resources to deal with uncertainty” (p. 29) and given that, their high UA is moderated by their laid back, carefree and non-stressful attitude towards work (Crocombe, 1976). The “island time” is an indication of their lack of urgency in getting things done and things are done only when they are absolutely necessary (Crocombe, 1976). Pacific Peoples have a tendency to not allocate resources over time nor plan their tasks, and when a task needs completion, it is done in a hurry collectively and usually at the last minute (Crocombe, 1976; McCoy & Havea, 2006). McCoy and Havea (2006) explain that the Pacific’s low anxiety about the future and a lack of business planning partly contribute to their businesses failing. Uncertainty avoidance and tax compliance People from low UA cultures are more likely to take risks (S. Lee & Peterson, 2000) and they have a tendency to be less concerned with orderliness and maintaining meticulous records (Lucas, 2009). Businesses may be set up with minimal planning and the decision making process is less likely to be analytical (House et al., 2004). High UA cultures have a strong dislike towards ambiguity and express a need for precision, predictability and good record keeping. Individuals with high UA traits “seek greater stability and avoid risk” (A. Cohen, 2007, p. 280) whereas lower UA individuals are more willing to accept the consequences of unfamiliar risk (Chew & Putti, 1995). 4.5.4 Long term (LT) and short term (ST) orientation for the ethnic groups Asian countries are high scorers for long term (LT) orientation, whereas New Zealand has medium term orientation (Hofstede & Hofstede, 2005). Pacific Peoples can be described as short term (ST) oriented as they tend to live for the present and not plan for the future (Crocombe, 1976; Lucas, 2009; Prescott, 2009). To the Maori, time is cyclical (past and present) and there is an understanding that “decisions require much contemplation and consideration from every angle” (Mataira, 2000, p. 25). They are not oriented towards the future as they emphasise nurturing relationships to preserve one’s mana (aura) which suggests a ST orientation (Clydesdale, 2007; Mitchell, 2009).
Image of page 70
57 Long term and short term orientations and tax compliance Long term oriented Asians demonstrate their business success due to their frugality, perseverance, adaptability and pragmatism (Bond, Leung, & Wan, 1982; Gupta et al., 2008; Hofstede & Bond, 1988). Asians work with low business margins (Basu & Altinay, 2002; Tipton, 2009), are “hawk-eyed on cost control” (Bjerke, 2000, p. 121) and demonstrate “an excellent mastery of financial levers” (Lasserre & Schutte, 1995, p.
Image of page 71
Image of page 72

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 241 pages?

  • Fall '16
  • tax compliance, SME Operators

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask ( soon) You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors