Maori Frederick Henry 2004 which is detrimental for successful businesses Honig

Maori frederick henry 2004 which is detrimental for

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Maori (Frederick & Henry, 2004), which is detrimental for successful businesses (Honig, 1998). Opposition from within the community to succeed in business perpetuates their passivity and therefore little future planning is emphasised (Boswell, Brown, Maniopoto, & Kruger, 1994; De Bruin & Mataira, 2003). These factors point to them having a low uncertainty avoidance trait.
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56 The Pacific cultures are traditionally high in UA due to the many rituals determining how one should behave socially and hierarchically (Lucas, 2009). However, in relation to work uncertainty, Lucas (2009) concludes that “Tongans are not concerned or do not have the resources to deal with uncertainty” (p. 29) and given that, their high UA is moderated by their laid back, carefree and non-stressful attitude towards work (Crocombe, 1976). The “island time” is an indication of their lack of urgency in getting things done and things are done only when they are absolutely necessary (Crocombe, 1976). Pacific Peoples have a tendency to not allocate resources over time nor plan their tasks, and when a task needs completion, it is done in a hurry collectively and usually at the last minute (Crocombe, 1976; McCoy & Havea, 2006). McCoy and Havea (2006) explain that the Pacific’s low anxiety about the future and a lack of business planning partly contribute to their businesses failing. 4.5.3.1 Uncertainty avoidance and tax compliance People from low UA cultures are more likely to take risks (S. Lee & Peterson, 2000) and they have a tendency to be less concerned with orderliness and maintaining meticulous records (Lucas, 2009). Businesses may be set up with minimal planning and the decision making process is less likely to be analytical (House et al., 2004). High UA cultures have a strong dislike towards ambiguity and express a need for precision, predictability and good record keeping. Individuals with high UA traits “seek greater stability and avoid risk” (A. Cohen, 2007, p. 280) whereas lower UA individuals are more willing to accept the consequences of unfamiliar risk (Chew & Putti, 1995). 4.5.4 Long term (LT) and short term (ST) orientation for the ethnic groups Asian countries are high scorers for long term (LT) orientation, whereas New Zealand has medium term orientation (Hofstede & Hofstede, 2005). Pacific Peoples can be described as short term (ST) oriented as they tend to live for the present and not plan for the future (Crocombe, 1976; Lucas, 2009; Prescott, 2009). To the Maori, time is cyclical (past and present) and there is an understanding that “decisions require much contemplation and consideration from every angle” (Mataira, 2000, p. 25). They are not oriented towards the future as they emphasise nurturing relationships to preserve one’s mana (aura) which suggests a ST orientation (Clydesdale, 2007; Mitchell, 2009).
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57 4.5.4.1 Long term and short term orientations and tax compliance Long term oriented Asians demonstrate their business success due to their frugality, perseverance, adaptability and pragmatism (Bond, Leung, & Wan, 1982; Gupta et al., 2008; Hofstede & Bond, 1988). Asians work with low business margins (Basu & Altinay, 2002; Tipton, 2009), are “hawk-eyed on cost control” (Bjerke, 2000, p. 121) and demonstrate “an excellent mastery of financial levers” (Lasserre & Schutte, 1995, p.
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