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Specific evolution-based predictions were tested in a cross-cultural study that included Korea, the Netherlands, and the United States (Buss, Shackelford, Choe, Buunk, & Dijkstra, 2000). Korean, Dutch, and American men, more than corresponding women,
3期 David M. Buss. The Evolution of Human Mating511 reported greater distress when a rival who was interested in their partner surpassed them on financial prospects, job prospects, and physical strength. In contrast, Korean, Dutch, and American women report greater distress when a rival surpasses them on facial and bodily attractiveness. Although both sexes are equally jealous overall, the sexes differ in the weighting given to sexual versus emotional infidelity as well as in the qualities of rivals that they find threatening. If jealousy is an evolved emotion, and the empirical evidence so far appears to support this proposition, then the next step is to explore the behavioral output of this emotion. Three different studies have explored “mate retention tactics” of men and women, using both married couples and dating couples as participants (Buss, 1988; Buss & Shackelford, 1997; Shackelford, Goetz, Buss, Euler, & Hoier, 2005). Mate retention tactics are specific behaviors designed to ward off rivals or to deter a mate from straying. The specific tactics range from vigilance(e.g., He called her at unexpected times to see who she was with) to violence(e.g., He hit the guy who made a pass at her). Married men tend to engage in especially vigorous mate retention efforts when their spouse is youngin age and physically attractive. In contrast, women tend to engage in especially vigorous mate retention efforts when married to men who have goodjobs, high incomes, and devote a lot of time to status striving. In addition, men and women differ in the types of mate retention tactics they use. Men, more than women, tend to display resources to their mate, as well as threaten and commit violence on intrasexual rivals. Women, more than men, tend to enhance their physical appearance as a mate retention strategy, as well as intentionally evoking their partner’s jealousy. Intentionally evoking jealousy, for example by flirting with other men and eliciting their interest, appears to be a strategy women use to increase their mate’s perceptions of their desirability (Buss, 2000). Conclusions Humans have evolved a complex menu of mating strategies. These include long-term committed mating, brief sexual encounters, infidelity, mate poaching, and mate guarding. Long-term mate preferences are complex, reflecting desires for many different qualities such as kindness, intelligence, mutual attraction, love, dependability, and good health. Some are cross-culturally variable, such as the desire for virgin spouses. Two universal clusters of sex differences are the desire for youth and beauty (men value more than women) and the desire for a mate who has good financial prospects and elevated social status (women value more than men). These profound sex differences have been documented in studies of expressed preferences, as well as in studies of actual