Transmission of an infectious disease may occur

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Transmission of an infectious disease May occur through one or more diverse pathways These infecting agents may also be indirectly transmitted liquids • food • contaminated objects • airborne inhalation • vector-borne spread Direct = physical contact with infected individuals • body fluids
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18 Disease Transmission Routes • Inhalation • Oral-fecal • Venereal spread • Vertebrate-reservoir • Vector
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19 Factors that affect transmission rate • Number of susceptible individuals • Season • Population density • Stage of infection - Acute - Chronic - Full blown AIDS
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20 Epidemiology - identifying risk factors for disease - determining optimal treatment approaches The study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations Work of epidemiologists : - outbreak investigation - study design - data collection and analysis including the development of statistical models to test hypotheses Epidemiologists require understanding disease processes and social science disciplines including sociology and philosophy in order to better understand the risk factors.
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21 Epidemic When a disease occurs in unusually high numbers in a population at the same time Terminology Endemic disease When a disease is constantly present in a population Pandemic A widely distributed epidemic
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22 AIDS statistics in the US
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23 A Hidden Epidemic
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24 US depts of Health and Human Services
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25 Monitoring of Infectious Disease • United States - Centers for Disease Control www.cdc.gov Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report • Worldwide - World Health Organization www.who.int UNAIDS annual report
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26 The CDC has a list of notifiable diseases http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5912md.htm AIDS, anthrax, botulism, cholera, diphtheria, listeriosis, mumps, plague, polio, Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
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28 Control of Infectious Diseases • Public Health Departments • United States Department of Agriculture • Vaccination • Antibiotics • Anti-viral drugs
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29
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30 Antibiotic resistance = one of the world’s most pressing public health problems.
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