Marginal tax rate 105 namrathas after tax rate of

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Chapter 12 / Exercise 7
Macroeconomics for Today
Tucker
Expert Verified
Marginal Tax Rate). 105. Namratha's after tax rate of return on the tax exempt city of Watkinsville bond is 4.5%. The Moe's, Inc. bond pays taxable interest of 7%. Namratha's after tax rate of return on the Moe's, Inc. bond is 5.25% (i.e., 7% interest income - (7% x 25%) tax = 5.25%). Namratha should invest in the Moe's, Inc. bond. Implicit taxes are very difficult to quantify and thus, are generally not considered when calculating average and effective tax rates (i.e., when assessing relative tax burdens). Since implicit taxes are ignored in these calculations, taxpayers may conclude that groups of taxpayers investing in tax advantaged assets (subject to implicit tax) do not pay their fair share of tax as represented by a low effective tax rate. 106. The student is considering explicit taxes and ignoring implicit taxes. An explicit tax is a tax that is directly imposed by a government unit and easily quantified. Implicit taxes are the reduced rates of pre-tax return that a tax-favored asset produces (e.g., the lower pre-tax rate of return earned by tax exempt municipal bonds). Although implicit taxes are real and equally important in understanding our tax system, they are difficult to quantify. 107. Mandy's forecast is based on dynamic forecasting (i.e., she is considering how taxpayers may alter their activities in response to the tax law change). Given that Mandy is projecting a decrease in tax revenues, her estimates must be based on the substitution effect - i.e., taxpayers are likely to substitute nontaxable activities (e.g., simply not purchase gum) for taxable purchases. The decreased tax revenue from gum sales does not necessarily imply that Mandy will achieve a cleaner city as taxpayers may simply buy their gum outside the city. This will depend on how close the city is to other towns/neighborhoods that do not impose the high gum tax.
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Chapter 12 / Exercise 7
Macroeconomics for Today
Tucker
Expert Verified
From the taxpayer's perspective of economy, the federal income tax does not fare so well. The income tax is often criticized for the compliance costs imposed on the taxpayer. Indeed, for certain taxpayers, record-keeping costs, accountant fees, attorney fees, etc. can be quite substantial. Economy requires that a good tax system should minimize the compliance and administration costs associated with the tax system. Economy can be viewed from both the taxpayers' and government's perspectives. From the government's perspective, the federal tax system fares well with respect to economy. For example, the current IRS budget represents approximately ½ of a percent of every tax dollar collected. Compared to the typical costs of a collection agency, this is quite a low percentage cost. However, the federal income tax is often criticized as being complex. What are taxable/nontaxable forms of income? What are deductible/ nondeductible expenses? When should income or expense be reported? For many taxpayers (e.g., wage earners with few investments), the answers to these questions are straightforward. For other taxpayers (e.g., business owners, individuals with a lot of investments), the answers to these